AJES
Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences
 
 
AJES

 

 


VOLUME 20: ISSUE 2

CONTENTS YEAR 2006
 

 

Click on the linked title to view the paper

 

Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 2, 2006, 217-224

Sustainability and the Global Commons

John Cairns, Jr.
Department of Biological Sciences,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA

Abstract : The first picture of Earth from space showed a tiny, fragile, blue sphere. Above all, the planet was obviously finite. Despite this evidence, the restricted view of Earth from Earth is that sustained development (i.e., growth) is possible on a finite planet. However, to live sustainably, humankind must determine Earth’s carrying capacity and live within that limit. The ecologically acceptable number of inhabitants will depend upon the quality of life people seek and the size of the safety factor that will be accepted as necessary to avoid exceeding Earth’s carrying capacity. Nature exacts severe penalties on those individuals and societies that exceed carrying capacity (i.e., overuse of natural resources). The central but inadequately discussed assumption of sustainable use of the planet is that humankind can reduce the suffering resulting from natural selection and also develop a mutualistic relationship with the biospheric life support system and with members of its own species. Scientific evidence, reason, and compassion for all forms of life may well create sustainability. Of course, biological evolutionary processes will sustain life on Earth despite prodigious loss of individuals and species. Over 4 billion years of evidence indicate that this process works. On the other hand, no robust evidence is available that sustainable use of the planet by Homo sapiens is even possible, but social evolution of human society may make it so. A key component is managing the global commons for sustainable use without abuse.

Key words : Biological evolution, Social evolution, Sustainability, Resource wars, Carrying capacity, Scientific evidence, Global commons.
 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 2, 2006, 225-232

The Diseconomies of Environmental Catastrophes

John Cairns, Jr.
Department of Biological Sciences,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA

Abstract : Four factors are almost certain to lead to one or more catastrophes unless major remedial measures are taken.

(1)  China has replaced the United States as the world’s leading consumer of resources, except for oil (Brown, 2006a), but China is already a major factor in the world market in this area also. Together, China and the United States consume approximately half the world’s resources and the global population is still increasing on a finite planet.

(2)  The over 20% global ecological overshoot is simply too large to persist without catastrophic effects.

(3)  Natural law does not function on human intent. Talk about sustainable development continues, but minor evidence of living sustainably will not alter evolutionary selective processes.

(4)  Increased evidence indicates that global warming, with rises in sea levels, may already be irreversible.

(5)  Peak oil will be followed by a decline in cheap energy, which has made Homo sapiens a dominant species.

Key words : Diseconomies, Environmental catastrophes, Ecological overshoot, Global warming, Peak oil, Resource wars.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 2, 2006, 233-242

Controlling Landfill Emissions for Environmental Protection : Mid Auchencarroch Experimental Project

Telemachus C. Koliopoulos1 and D.M. Georgia Koliopoulou2
1.   Environmental Consultancy,
      Centre for Environmental Management Research,
      University of Strathclyde, Greece.

2.   Department of Experimental Physiology,
      Medical School, University of Athens, Greece.

Abstract : This paper assesses the long term behaviour of Mid Auchencarroch experimental landfill site in Scotland, based on characteristic landfill biodegration parameters, making useful conclusions. and analyzes the effects of waste pretreatment and landfill management techniques on landfill emissions and waste biodegradation processes. The biodegradation of Mid Auchencarroch Experimental Landfill Project is studied in four different cells with different waste input materials. The Mid Auchencarroch’s experimental design confirm that waste pretreatment and leachate recirculation are sustainable and accelerate the waste biodegradation, protecting public health from associated hazards. The variations of characteristic indexes of landfill emissions are presented and analyzed for different bioreactor’s conditions. Landfill emissions’ environmental contamination control has to be improved based on the presented evaluations, taking into account different landfill conditions. The experimental results showed that the use of the anaerobic landfill batch bioreactor design is sustainable and it should be used by landfill operators.

Key words : Landfill gas; leachates; landfill design; waste biodegradation; solid waste management; public health.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 2, 2006, 243-252

Determination of Am-Be Neutron Source used on Landmine Detection

D. Rezaei Ochbelagh*, H. Miri Hakimabad  and R. Izadi Najafabadi 
Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences,
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad,
Mashhad
, Islamic Republic of Iran


Abstract :
For  plastic landmine detection 252Cf, D-D and D-T neutron sources are used. Present study indicates that Am-Be neutron source can also be used for this purpose. In order to apply this source, it is necessary to design suitable shield. In this work firstly we have experimentally shown that the gamma ray emitted from neutron source has no effect on BF3 detector counts. Secondly we have theoretically investigated the shield of Am-Be neutron source used on landmine detection then accomplished experiment to determine polyethylene(PE) shield thickness.

Keywords : Landmine, Am-Be Source, MCNP code, BF3 Detector, Polyethylene, TNT.
 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 2, 2006, 253-259

 

Wastewater Influencing Pathogenic Bacterial Population and Biochemical Alterations in Fish


J. N. Bhakta* and B. B. Jana
Aquaculture and Applied Limnology Research Unit,
Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani,
Kalyani-741 235, West Bengal, India,


Abstract : Experiment was conducted in sewage-fed ponds to ascertain the responses of bacterial populations and biochemical alterations in fish cultured under different stress conditions of two sewage strengths. Rohu (Labio rohita, 60 12 g) was introduced in facultative pond-1 and stocking pond-4 at the rate of 10,000 fish ha-1 and reared for 120 days. Water surface sediment and fish samples were collected for examination of bacterial population; biochemical and water quality analysis were made at biweekly intervals. Growth of fish was recorded at regular intervals. Load of pathogenic bacteria (Coliform and Vibrio sp.) was higher in facultative pond-1 than that of stocking pond-4. 41 to 100%, 43 to 96% and 25 to 105% greater value of protein, DNA and RNA were observed, respectively, in the fish of stocking pond-4 than those of the facultative pond-1. It clearly implies that fishes of facultative pond-1 must expend more energy, which is used to synthesize structural or functional proteins and biotransformer to resist the stressor’s effects on homeostasis that presents in more quantity in facultative pond-1 than that of the stocking pond-4. Therefore, it can be concluded that the concentration of DNA and RNA and DNA/RNA ratio may be considered as indicators of fish growth, which is influenced by various stressors of sewage water.


Key words :  Strength of sewage, stressor, fish, bacterial population, biochemical changes.
 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 2, 2006, 261-268

Effect of VAM soil Containing Glomus fasciculatum on Growth of Withania somnifera Dun

S. Halder1 and M.B.Ray2
1.             Department of Botany,
Burdwan Raj College, Burdwan, India
2.             Department of Botany,
Burdwan University, Burdwan, India
 

Abstract : Withania somnifera is an important medicinal and endangered plant growing as weed. The present sets of experiment have been designed to establish Glomus fasciculatum with the root system of W. somnifera and to analyze the effectiveness of this mycorrhiza on vegetative growth and absorption of nutrients from the soil. Plants were grown in plastic pots under aseptic conditions. The VAM soil containing Glomus fasciculatum was applied once after 30 days of transplanting in one set of plants, and twice after 30 days and 75 days of transplanting in another set of experiment. The establishment of the fungus within the root in the form of vesicle was observed. Formation of vesicles within the root indicated the affinity of the fungus with the plant. Mycorrhizal treatment showed better vegetative growth in comparison to untreated plants. Significant increase in height, number of branches and number of leaves over non-treated plants were found. Further observation showed the increase of fresh weight and dry weight of stem, leaf and root. The mycorrhiza like Glomus fasciculatum also enhanced the levels of phosphorus in different parts of treated plants, but nitrogen levels were higher in different parts of the plant when VAM soil applied once such results pointed out that Glomus fasciculatum has an effective role as bio-fertilizer on Withania somnifera.

Key words : VAM, medicinal plant, growth, phosphorus, nitrogen, mycorrization.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 2, 2006, 269-273

Genistein Against Radiation Damage : A Study on Swiss Albino Mice

Ajay Gaur*, Avadhesh Sharma and A.L. Bhatia
Radiation Biology Laboratory,
University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004, Rajasthan, India
*L.B.S. College of Pharmacy, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India


Abstract : Radiation has harmful effects on biological systems. The radioprotective effects of an acute administration of the isoflavone, Genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) a product of Soya foods is a solid substance and its molecular formula is C15H10O5 and its molecular weight is 270.24 Daltons. It is also classified as a phytoestrogen. Mice were administered with different doses (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg body weight) of Genistein before 8 Gy gamma radiation and the dose of genistein at which maximum survivability is obtained was selected as optimum dose (200 mg/kg). The 0.5 ml dose of Genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally (I.P.) to mice before gamma irradiation. In mice treated with Genistein (200 mg/kg) 24 hr before irradiation a significant increase in 30 day survival has been recorded in contrast to mice treated with Genistein 15 minutes before irradiation. This observation indicates the radioprotective efficacy with longer retention with the possible minimum toxicity.

Key words : Genistein, Radioprotectant, Soya foods and Radiation.
 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 2, 2006, 275-280
 

Morphological Differentiation and Effect of Seed Inoculum on the Production of Cephalosporin-C by Acremonium chrysogenum
 

Ruchi Verma 1, Vinod kumar Nigam1*, Subir Kundu 2 and P. Ghosh 1

1.   Birla Institute of Scientific Research,
      Statue Circle, Jaipur- 302 001

2.   School of Biochemical Engineering,
      Institute of Technoloy, B.H.U., Varanasi, 221 005


Abstract:
Cephalosporins, more resistant to
b-lactamases are usually produced semi-synthetically from cephalosporin-C, which is produced by fermentation using mold Acremonium chrysogenum. The morphological differentiation of mold during the submerged cultivation was investigated and co-related with the production of CPC. It has been found that the biosynthesis of CPC was more during the idiophase when the number of swollen hyphae and the number of arthrospores are high. The production of CPC was higher when the seed of early stage was used as an inoculum source. The yield of CPC was almost 1.3 times higher than the late stage seed as inoculum source.

Key words: Cephalosporin-C fermentation, stirred tank bioreactor, arthrospores, morphology, and batch fermentation
 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 2, 2006, 281-288
 

Zinc-Induced Changes on Chromosomes of a Fresh Water Teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch)


Neelima Gupta1*, D.K. Gupta 2, V.K. Verma 1 and Gopal Krishna 3
 

1.   Department of Animal Science,
      M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly (U.P.), India


2.   Department of Zoology, Bareilly College, Bareilly (U.P.), India
 

3.   Department of Fish Genetics and Biotechnology,
      Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, India

 

Abstract :The genotoxicity of heavy metal zinc to an Indian catfish Heteropneustes fossilis was determined by different exposed concentrations (1.00 ppm, 3.00 ppm and 5.00 ppm) during various time intervals (24 hrs., 48 hrs. and 72 hrs.). The exposure of zinc induced Total Metaphase spreads with Chromosomal Aberration (TMCA) and different types of abnormalities like ring chromosomes being (maximum 71.4% 1.0 ppm : 24 hrs.) and a minimum of 21% (1.00 ppm : 72 hrs.). The chromosomal breakage was 40.8% (1.00 ppm : 24 hrs.). The percentage of dicentric chromosomes was significantly higher 42.2% (1.00 ppm : 72 hours). The chromosomes of the exposed fish also become fragmented. The maximum fragmentation of chromosomes was 35.0% (5.00 ppm: 72 hours) and the minimum was 7.4% (1.00 ppm: 48 hours).The present studies are an expression of the mutagenic and clastogenic characteristics of the impact of sublethal concentration of the heavy metal, zinc in H.fossilis.


Key words : Zinc, Chromosomes, Heteropneustes fossilis.
 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 2, 2006, 289-296
 

Environment Impact of Idol Immersion Activity Lakes of Bhopal, India


Anju Vyas1*, D. D. Mishra 2, A. Bajapai3,  S. Dixit 4 and N. Verma 5

1.   Department of Chemistry, Govt. Geetanjali Girls P.G. College, Bhopal and Chitransh A.D.P.G. College, Bhopal, MP, India 462016
 

2.   Department of Chemistry, Govt. College Udaipura, Bhopal, M.P, India
 

3.   LCA (EPCO) Bhopal, M.P., India
 

4.   Applied Chemistry Department, Maulana Azad National  Institute of Technology, Bhopal - 462007, (M.P.), India


5.   Applied Chemistry Department, MANIT &  Govt. Geetanjali Girls P.G. College, Bhopal - 462016, M.P., India.

 

Abstract : The immersion of idol of Lord Ganesh and Durga during Ganesh Ustav and Navratris festival is a major source of contamination and sedimentation to the lake water. Environmental impact due to idol immersion in Upper and Lower Lakes, it is situated in Bhopal, the capital city of M.P. The lakes constructed respectively in the 11th and 18th century is typical Example of urban water bodies. While the Upper Lake has been one major source of potable water for the people of Bhopal for ever a century, the Lower lake remains a source of raw water for the urban development which mushroomed around it as well as on the north eastern fringe of Upper lake during the last few decades. Idol immersion is a cause of water pollution peculiar to India with its large number of adherent to the Hindu religion. Idol are made of clay but non–biodegradable thermocol and paints containing heavy metals are also used .The immersion practices leads to degradation of water quality and siltration .The parameters like Turbidity, Total Hardness, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Demand, (BOD) Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Oil and Grease have been studie to Upper and Lower lakes, Bhopal. Parameter Turbidity,  Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) become higher on immersion idols have grown in number and size over the years and urban water bodies are facing on increasing nutrient load.


Key wards :  Contamination, Idol Immersion, Lake ecosystem, Water quality parameter.


 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 2, 2006, 297-302

 

Seasonal Variations in Physico-chemical Characteristics in Upper Lake of Bhopal


Charu Parashar*1, Savita Dixit2 and Rajnish Shrivastava1


1.   Department of Civil Engineering

      MANIT, Bhopal, M.P., India
 

2.   Chemistry Department

      MANIT, Bhopal, M.P., India

 

Abstract : Water intended for human consumption should be “safe” and “wholesome” i.e. free from pathogenic agent and harmful chemicals, pleasant to taste and usable for domestic purpose. The study area selected was Upper lake of Bhopal, the city of lakes, Madhya Pradesh. It is a life line of Bhopal created by Raja Bhoj in eleventh century. The physico-chemical parameters like temperature, pH, DO, total hardness, total alkalinity and turbidity were studied to analyse the potable water quality of the lake. Better water quality was found in winter season than summer. Extent of pollution that has occurred due to urbanization, anthropogenic activities; increased human interventions in the water bodies have been ascertained.

Key words : lake, physico-chemical parameters, seasonal variations.
 

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