Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences



Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 36, No. 1, 2022; 1-8


Environmental Toxicants Inducing COVID-19 Transmission and Lethality Among Adults and Children


Manju Singh


Department of Zoology

Raghunath Girls Post Graduate College, Meerut-250001, UP, India
E mail: manjuipc2000@gmail.com
Received: August 22, 2021
Revised: October, 6, 2021
Accepted: October 20, 2021


Abstract :  COVID-19 was first of all found in China and from there it spread out throughout the world in the first quarter of 2020. On January 30, 2020, World Health Organization treated this as a matter of a Public Health Emergency of international concern. Subsequently on March 11, 2020 it was declared a pandemic. The cause of COVID-19 disease was a virus named as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus type-2 (SARS-CoV-2) which infects the patient by binding to the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor expressed in several organs including lungs, heart, kidney and intestine. The infection spreads by expulsion of virus from the infected person through their respiratory systems in to the environment as the pathogens penetrate in to the respective host by inhalation. A number of studies conducted by scientists in China, Italy and USA point out the role of increasing level of air pollutants in fast transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and severity of the disease COVID 19. PM10 and PM2.5 (Particulate Matter) play a vital role in spread of virus as they remain in the air for enough time and act as vector or carrier for the virus and may carry the pathogens for long distances and deeper in to the lungs. Besides PM, pesticides, aerosol containing carbon mono oxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, heavy metals, and organic chemicals induce oxidative stress which can disrupt the function of respiratory epithelial barrier. These pollutants may also induce influenced and thereby increasing the susceptibility for the virus and lethality among COVID-19 patients.

Occurrence and severity of COVID -19 disease influenced by toxic environment in adults is suggested through epidemiological evidence. There may be various reasons for this such as-reduced innate immunity by pollutants provides the easy way for entry of virus and presence of enough number of ACE-2 receptors on the respiratory surface of adults in comparison to nose of a child. Thus a child is less prone to getting infected by COVID -19 in comparison to the adults.

Recent research studies of COVID-19 observed that the vulnerability of the virus is less among the children in comparison to adult population. This observation is important in the light of the fact that children are generally more vulnerable than adults to the adverse consequences of air pollution. It was suggested that trained innate immunity and increased immune microenvironment due to increased lymphocytes, T and B cells, NK cells protect the children, Universal BCG vaccination and prior infection with other viruses of coronavirus family in children may provide cross protection to SARS-CoV-2.


Key words :  COVID-19, ACE -2 Receptor, SARS-CoV-2, Particulate Matter (PM), Air Pollutants.




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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 36, No. 1, 2021; 9-18


Antioxidant and Anti Lipid Peroxidation Activities of Annona reticulata Leaf Extract Against CCl4 -induced Liver Injury in Rats


Poonam Ahirwar and Manju Tembhre*


Govt. P G College, Seoni, Madhya Pradesh, India.

M K Ponda College of Business and Management, Bhopal- 462038, India
*Corresponding Author Email: m_tembhre@yahoo.co.in
Received: September 12, 2021
Revised: October 18, 2021
Accepted: October 29, 2021


Abstract :  The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of Annona reticulata leaves on antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile of CCl4 - induced liver toxicity in rats. The experimental liver injury was induced in animals by CCl4 (2ml/kg b.w. i.p.) injection and treatment with the dose of (200mg/kg b.w.) was continued for 30 days. At the end of treatment period, oxidative stress parameters like lipid peroxidation by-products; enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were calculated in the liver and the structure of hepatic cells of experimental rats was also studied. The ethanol extract of Annona reticulata (EEAR) leaves possessed antioxidant activity as shown by significantly increased activities of scavenging enzymes, catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) content as compared to CCl4 -treated rats in which the level of these enzymes were decreased. Administration of the extract also improved the lipid profile of the treated groups. Histopathology of the liver tissues showed that CCl4 induces deterioration in cellular boundaries, the vacuolisation, inflammatory infiltration, dilation of sinusoidal, increased number of kupffer cells and the fatty degeneration (steatosis) in the liver. However, supplementation of leaf extract of Annona reticulata attenuated the cellular necrosis and led the CCl4 - inducedalterations to restoration repairing of cells toward normal. These findings suggest that treatment of ethanol extract of Annona reticulata (EEAR) leaves exerts a therapeutic protective effect in CCl4 - treated rats by decreasing oxidative stress, and hepatic damage.


Key wordsAnnona reticulata, CCl4, CAT , GSH, SOD, LPO, Liver, and Rat




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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 36, No. 1, 2022; 19-30


GIS Integrated Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Index (GwQI) for Granitic Aquifers and its Relation with Zone of Lineaments in Parts of BundelkhandGranite Complex (BGC), Central India


Navneet Ranjan, P. K. Kathal* and Jemini Khatik


Department of Applied Geology,
Dr. Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar - 470 003, India
*email: kathalpk@rediffmail.com
Received: October 3, 2021
Revised: November, 7, 2021
Accepted: November 19, 2021


Abstract :  Groundwater is an important source for drinking. In Bundelkhand Granitic Complex (BGC) of central India, however, its quality is diminishing due to various geological processes. The study evaluates groundwater quality incorporating the GwQI tool based on GIS techniques by defining its relation with lineaments/weak zones for the demarcation of safe and 'good quality' zones for exploitation of groundwater in the studied area. Twelve 'quality parameters' namely pH, EC, TDS, HT, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, K+2, Cl-, F-, HCO3-, and SO4-2 for each of the 41 groundwater samples have been assigned weightage through 'decision-making' and validating our knowledge as per their effects on human health for the computation of GwQI scores and groundwater quality assessment as per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS, 2015). The spatial variability of 'quality parameters' generated through IDW Interpolation along with their correlation analyses have been determined with influence of geological and hydrogeological - attributes. The study shows that 'poor quality' (F- above 1.5 mg/l) in groundwater in the zone extending from central to north-western parts of the area (demarcated by GwQI scores mapping) has a direct relation with the underlying 'unconfined granitic aquifers' along the major NW-SE trending lineaments.


Key words :  Groundwater Quality Index, Bundelkhand Granite Complex, lineaments, granites.




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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 36, No. 1, 2022; 31-38


Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Index (GwQI) of Groundwater in Chhindwara District, Central India


Jemini Khatik, P. K. Kathal* and Navneet Ranjan


Department of Applied Geology,
Dr. Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar 470003, India
Received: November10, 2021
Revised: December, 14, 2021
Accepted: December 26, 2021


Abstract :  Groundwater Quality Index (GwQI) provides a 'single number' that expresses overall quality of groundwater at a 'location and time' based on several 'water quality parameters'. The objective is to turn 'complex quality data' into information that is understandable and usable by the people and the agencies monitoring the quality of groundwater. Twelve hydrogeochemical parameters (pH, EC, TDS, TH, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, F- -HCO3 and SO42-) were selected to calculate the GwQI in order to assess, for the first time, the impact of both 'geogenic' as well as 'anthropogenic' activities for better monitoring of the quality of groundwater in Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh, India.


Key words :  Hydrogeochemical parameters, Groundwater Quality Index (GwQI), groundwater and Chhindwara.




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