Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences



Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 35, No. 1, 2021; 1-7


Histoenzymological Distribution Pattern of Acetylcholinesterase in the Rhombencephalic Brain Centres of Channa Punctatus


Anurag Tripathi* and Shri Prakash


Department of Zoology, Kulbhaskar Ashram Post Graduate College, Prayagraj-211001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Email *Corresponding author: anuragkapgprayag@yahoo.com ; rahulzau@rediffmail.com
Received: August 10, 2020
Revised: October 3, 2020
Accepted: October 15, 2020


Abstract :  Rhombencephalon or hind brain of fishes is interesting in many facts as it presents an intricate system of complex neuronal cytoarchitecture, controlling complex physiological and behavioural patterns of the body in very sophisticated way. Study of neuronal architecture of fishes is also of utmost significance because gradual significant modifications in the structure of brain led to complex and highly evolved mammalian brains passing through different vertebrate classes. However, despite a complex cytoarchitecture of fish brain, anatomical differentiation among brain centers and nuclei is poor. Acetylcholinesterase (E.C. which is an important brain enzyme belonging to hydrolase group which splits the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in to choline and acetate, thus it is an effective marker of cholinergic and cholinoceptive neurons, giving vivid demarcation of brain areas. Present study has been carried out to histochemically map the different hind brain centers of an Indian non Catfish Channa punctatus by employing a modified histochemical technique to visualize the acetylcholinesterase containing neurons. Interestingly, except few most of the hind brain nuclei and centers exhibited strong activity for acetylcholinesterase thereby representing the dominance of cholinergic and cholinoceptive centers. Present study has also been compared with that of other vertebrates studied earlier to trace a phylogenic relationship in the light of recent cytoarchitectonic, and functional studies.


Key words :  Cholinergic, Cholinoceptive, cytoarchitecture, Acetylcholinesterase, Histochemistry.




- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  

Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 35, No. 1, 2021; 9-29


Assessment of Lake Water Quality by using Trophic State Index Indicators : A Case Study of Nainital, Kumaun Region, Uttrakhand, India


Naresh Gopal Shrivastava*


Pollution Control Research Institute, BHEL, Ranipur, Haridwar 249403 (Uttrakahand), India
Email: ngshri25@gmail.com
*(P3B, 29/30, Deep Ganga Apartment, SIIDCUL, Haridwar 249403, Uttrakhand, India)
Received: November 2, 2020
Revised: December 12, 2020
Accepted: December 22, 2020


Abstract :  Lakes, water reservoirs and streams are the most valuable source of drinking water for the country. However, the lakes and reservoirs have special characteristics, which make them vulnerable to pollution and degradation. Additionally, water quality evaluation can be made by assessment eutrophication. The input of organic contaminants from different sources may result in the alteration of water quality. In order to ensure the water quality, it is important to have a complete inventory of the lakes/reservoirs/wetlands and their status. Till date number of inventorization of Lakes, Reservoirs & wetland have been done by the number of agencies, but the information is lacking on Water Quality of Lakes, Reservoirs & Wetlands with reference to eutrophication status of these inland water bodies in India. Due to the unavailability of the scientific database on Lake Water Quality, a proper conservation plan cannot be prepared. This study has been undertaken for the inventizization of Lake Water Quality with reference to Eutrophication Status of Nainital, located at Longitude 29022'30”, N Latitude 79027'30” E and Altitude: 1,938 m. and preparation of a conservation plan for restoration of Nainital. The four water chemistry parameters to determine the water body's trophic state: total chlorophyll, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and Transparency (water clarity). These four parameters serve as indicators of a water body's biological productivity - its ability to support life. Biological productivity is not measured directly hence word indicator is applied. However, it can be estimated. Read on to find out how each parameter relates to the biological productivity of your water body and to its trophic state. The study will help in the identification of hot spots and polluted water bodies in India, which will help in the rational planning of Pollution Control Strategies. Results revealed that the concentration of important parameters that mainly govern the catchment area characteristics was found above to the threshold level of eutrophication. By perusing the results of Trophic Index results of trophic state index indicate that Nainital is in a higher stage of Mesotrophic due to high nutrients loading through uncontrolled disposal of domestic waste from the catchment area.


Key words :  Nainital, Trophicstateindex, Eutrophication, Lake Restoration.




- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  

Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 35, No. 1, 2021; 31-37


A Report on Pseudoscorpion Sp. (Pseudoscorpionide, Haekel) From Reclaimed Coal Mine Spoils of Kathara, Jharkhand, India


Amita Hembrom1 & Braj Kishore Sinha2


1Research Associate, 2Soil Ecology laboratory, Deptt of Zoology, S S M College, Ranchi University, Ranchi
Email: brajkishore58ranchi@gmail.com
Received: November 26, 2020
Revised: December 22, 2020
Accepted: December 28, 2020


Abstract :  Present paper reports on the pseudoscorpion collected from the reclaimed coal mine spoils (RCMS) of Kathara coalfield area of Jharkhand, India. The reported Pseudoscorpion is a by-product of the soil samples collected from more than 40 years old RCMS, subjected to modified Berlese Tullgren funnel. The samples were collected randomly from 1mX1m quadrates, and we were able to separate three mature specimens - two females and one male with two immature specimens from the trash and slides were prepared for taxonomic categorization. Biometric measurement of the Holotype specimen is of the female followed by Paratypes measurement of male and another female specimen.


Key words :  Pseudoscorpion, reclaimed coal mine spoils, RCMS, Holotype, Partatype, Tullgren.




- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  

Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 35, No. 1, 2021; 39-46


A Survey on the Usage of Over-The-Counter Drugs and Related factors in Dubai, UAE


Mohammad Jamali1*, Kanika Verma2, Twinkle Sharma2, Shivangi Bharadwaj2, Shradha Agrawal2, Shivani Rawat2, Sonam Lakhmani2, Shweta Bharadwaj2, Pragati Gupta2, Vartika Paliwal2


1Department of Health Sciences, Al Khawarizmi International College, Abu Dhabi, UAE
2Department of Pharmacy, Banasthali Vidyapith,Banasthali, P.O. Rajasthan, India
*Corresponding author; Email: mjamali@kic.ac.in
Received: November 03, 2020
Revised: December 17, 2020
Accepted: December 25, 2020


Abstract :  Over the counter drugs (OTC) are exhaustively used as self-medication, but can be related with adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The aim of the study was to evidence the stakeholder's perception on OTC mediated effects depending upon their socio-demographic, background and practicing information. Data was collected from 397 respondents residing in UAE, Dubai using structured questionnaires during the year 2017-18. Data was analyzed using GraphPad 6.0 software for statistical analysis. The magnitude of association between an exposure variable and an outcome variable was calculated using multinomial logistic regression. Results of the study, indicated that analgesics are the most frequently used category consumed in the form of OTC, followed by herbal medicines, iron tablets/folic acid/multivitamins, cough syrup, antacids, anti-biotics, sleeping pills, tranquilizers, anti-pyrectics, anti-histaminic and anti-emetics. Notably, prolong consumption of these drugs are frequently associated with significant adverse effects such as, nausea, drowsiness, vomiting, dizziness, constipation etc in the recipients. Females and graduates were recorded to have more sensitivity towards the ADR associated with OTC medications. Frequent doctor visits showed a significant co-relation with experiencing ADRs. This attitude of disbelieving in pharmacist's instructions and not reading information on leaflet has a strong co-relation with experiencing serious ADR's. Age and food habits did not show any significant co-relation to the experienced ADRs among the studied populations. In nutshell, factors viz. gender, education, frequency of visits to doctor, lack of exercise, heavy smokers exhibited strong co-relation-with frequency of ADRs with OTC drugs usage. Henceforth, pharmacist or physician could play key role in reducing-the incidences of ADRs associated with OTC drugs usage.


Key words :  Over the counter drug, adverse drug reaction, Education, Information source, Pharmacist, Disease.




- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -