AJES
Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences
 
 
AJES


VOLUME 34: ISSUE 2

CONTENTS YEAR 2020

Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 34, No. 2, 2020; 1-5

 

Antibacterial Activity of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. Against Human Pathogens

 

Ashwathy G1, Amal Maria Siby2, Krishnakumar K1*

 

1Nutraceutical Research Division, Post Graduate and Research Department of Botany, Maharaja's College (Autonomous), Ernakulam- 682011, Kerala, India
2Christ Deemed to be University, Bengaluru - 560029, Karnataka, India
E-mail : hojjat.g@live.com;
*corresponding author - kkrishnakumar.alp@gmail.com
Received: May 1, 2020
Revised: June 2, 2020
Accepted: June 08, 2020

 

AbstractTrianthema portulacastrum Linn.is a species of flowering plant that belongs to the family Aizoaceae (Ficoideae). It is a c antibacterial property of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. portulacastrum Linn. on the common human pathogens viz. Escherichia coli, Vibrio harveyi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. The antibacterial activity of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was also carried out. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenols, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, protein, carbohydrate and terpenoids in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The nanoparticles biosynthesized using the plant extract was spherical in shape. Ethanolic extract showed superior activity against all the four strains of bacteria when compared to the aqueous extract. Antibacterial activity of nanoparticle solution was less when compared to the ethanolic extract. The most susceptible bacterium was found to be Bacillus cereus and the most resistant bacterium was found to be Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was observed at a concentration value of 40µg for ethanolic extract, 80µg for aqueous extract and 40µg for nanoparticle solution.

 

Key wordsTrianthema portulacastrum, phytochemical screening, silver nanoparticle, antibacterial activity, MIC.

 

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 34, No. 2, 2020; 7-11

 

Mass Culture of Cladocerans, Diaphanasoma sarsi and Ceriodaphnia cornuta Using Chicken Manure

 

Sivakumar Kandasamy* , Muthupriya Palanichamy and Shree Rama Mani

 

Department of Biotechnology, Karpaga Vinayaga College of Engineering and Technology GST Road, Chinna Kolambakkam, Padalam - 603308,
Madhuranthagam (Tk.), Chengalpet (Dt.), Tamilnadu
*Corresponding Author : ksivakumar76@gmail.com
Received: April 4, 2020
Revised: June 1, 2020
Accepted: June 05, 2020


 

Abstract : Cladocerans are important live food organisms for rearing of early stages of fishes and prawns. Considering this aspect, the present study was aimed to culture of Diaphanasoma sarsi and Ceriodaphnia cornuta using chicken manure carried out for 21 days. Microbial population (bacteria, algae and protozoa) of D. sarsi culture medium was high density on 11th day of culture period, whereas in C. cornuta culture medium bacteria (2453.0052.51 cfu/ml), algae (3.920.06 x 10 4 cells/ml) and Protozoa (48.001.00 nos./ml) 14th day, 7th day and 11th day, respectively. The densities of microbes compared with cladocerans were positively correlated except protozoan with C. cornuta density. The ranges of population of D. sarsi and C. cornuta recorded in the range of 2456.67 57.02 nos./l - 5967 60.56 nos./l and 971 31.61 nos./l to 6247.33 60.48 nos./l, respectively. DMRTs' test performance of D. sarsi and C. cornuta showed significantly difference in density during culture periods, except 7th day and 11th day and 7th day and 21st day respectively. Based on the present investigation, D. sarsi and C. cornuta are recommended as live food organisms to aquaculture industry.

 

Key words : Cladoceran, D. sarsi, C. cornuta, Chicken manure

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 34, No. 2, 2020; 13-17

 

Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy) (Homoptera:Aphididae) Aqueous Extracts Elicit Enhanced Oviposition Response by Its Parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

 

G. Lee and A. Khan*

 

Department of Life Sciences, The University of the West Indies St. Augustine Trinidad, West Indies
*Corresponding author e-mail: ayub.khan@sta.uwi.edu
Received: May 20, 2020
Revised: June 15, 2020
Accepted: June 25, 2020

 

Abstract : The Brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy) is a serious pest of Citrus spp. as it is the most efficient vector of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) which causes significant reduction in citrus production worldwide. Management of T. citricida in citrus orchards is usually by chemical and to a lesser extent biological control. The parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is a fairly efficient natural enemy of T. citricida however levels of parasitism vary throughout its range. Kairomones provide one avenue to increase levels of parasitism but this has not been thoroughly investigated for this pest-parasitoid complex. Lysiphlebus testaceipes was exposed to various concentrations of T. citricida aqueous extract on citrus leaves (host patch) and its leaf and host arrival times, first escape time, number of antennal and oviposition contacts and total time of contact with the host patch determined. Female L. testaceipes responded positively in all cases to aqueous extract of host sprayed on a host-infested leaf. Mean leaf arrival time by L testaceipes increased with concentration of host extracts. L. testaceipes host arrival time was less at all concentrations compared to the control and was fastest at 50 aphids/ mL H2O. First escape time at all host extract concentrations was significantly different from that of the control and there was a very high positive correlation between mean number of antennal contacts with the host and extract concentration. Likewise, the mean number of oviposition pricks gradually increased with increasing extract concentration and more hosts were ultimately oviposited in at higher host extract concentrations. The mean total time spent by L. testaceipes in contact with T. citricida increased approximately linearly (y =3.05x + 772.16, R2 = 0.78) with increasing host extract concentrations and was significantly different from the control.

 

Key words : Host arrival, antennal contact, Lysiphlebus testaceipes, brown citrus aphid, kairomones

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 34, No. 2, 2020; 19-24

 

Manifestation of Toxic Effects of Propoxur on Acetylcholinesterase and Histology of Liver of Tilapia mossambica (Peters)

 

Ritu Sharma1* Santosh Kumar2 Manju Tembhre3 Anjali Namdeo4

 


1Department of Zoology, Govt. Autonomous P. G. College, Chhindwara, (M.P.), India
2Dr. H. S. Gour University, Sagar, (MP), India
3M K Ponda College, Bhopal- 462028, India,
4Deptt. of Zoology, Govt. College Mohangarh, Tikamgarh-472101, MP, India.,
*Email:ritubohre@rediffmail.com
Received: November 10, 2019
Revised: April 05, 2020
Accepted: May 01, 2020

 

Abstract : The present study was carried out to evaluate the deleterious effects of propoxur (2- isopropoxyphenyl N-methyl carbamate) on the liver of Tilapia mossambica (Peters) to assess the toxicity to its behaviour, histology and enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7). Propoxur can be considered as highly toxic to Tilapia mossambica with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 0.520.01 ml/L. Various parameters of liver AChE and histology were studied after exposure to a sublethal concentration (0.065 ml/L) for 15 and 30 days. Propoxur showed significant (P<0.001) AChE inhibition of 22.77% for 15 days and 43.89% for 30 days of exposure. Kinetic studies reveal competitive inhibitory nature of propoxur. Recovery upto 69.3% was noticed after 30 days. The alterations in hepatic tissues like cellular vacuolization, hemorrhage, narrowed and disappeared wall of central vessel were observed. The impaired behavioural responses showed adverse consequences of propoxur on the fishes. The results are indicative of propoxur harmful nature to environment and subsequently to human population.

 

Key words: Propoxur, Liver, Tilapia mossambica, Acetylcholinesterase inhibition, AChE kinetics, Histology.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 34, No. 2, 2020; 25-29

 

Assessment of Datura stramonium and Chlorpyriphos-Induced Cytotoxicity in Liver of Catla catla

 

Anjali Namdeo1*, Manju Tembhre2, Ritu Sharma3

 


1Deptt. of Zoology, Govt. College, Mohangarh, Tikamgarh, MP, India 2M K Ponda College, Bhopal- 462028, India 3Department of Zoology, Govt. Autonomous P. G. College, Chhindwara, (M.P), India *Email: anjali_namdeo156@yahoo.co.in
Received: January 17, 2020
Revised: May 25, 2020
Accepted: June 21, 2020

 

Abstract : Excessive use of pesticides in agriculture to improve crop variety results in pollution of water through agricultural run-off affecting non-target aquatic organisms. These organophosphate pesticides are non-degradable and persistent in the environment. Considering the harmful effects by synthetic pesticides, biologically active compounds of plants are used to produce biopesticides. In the present study, the histopathological alterations were studied in the Liver tissues of freshwater fish Catla catla exposed to sub lethal concentration of an organophosphate pesticide Chlorpyriphos and ethnolic extract of a medicinal herb Datura stramonium for 96 hrs. The result showed degenerative changes, vacuolation, bile ductular proliferation, hypertrophy and coagulative necrosis in hepatocytes.

 

Key words: Catla catla, Chlorpyriphos, Datura stramonium, Histopathology, Liver.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 34, No. 2, 2020; 31-35

 

Investigation of Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Property, Total Phenolic and Total Flavonoid Contents of Ethanolic Extract of Stem Bark of Crataeva nurvala.

 

Poonam Ahirwar1* , Manju Tembhre2 , Mir Ajaz Akram3 and Muzafar Ahmad Sheikh4

 


1Department of Zoology, Govt. P G College Seoni- 480661, M.P. India
2Manju Tembhre, M K Ponda Colege, Bhopal-462028, India
3Department of Zoology, Govt. College Nasrullaganj- 466331, M.P. India
4Department of Zoology, Govt. Degree College Ganderbal, Jammu & Kashmir-191201, India
*Email:poonam_ahirwar211@yahoo.in Received: January 12, 2020
Revised: April 28, 2020
Accepted: May 15, 2020

 

Abstract : The present study was undertaken to screen the phytochemicals, to evaluate the total flavonoid and total phenolic contents as well as antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of bark of Crataeva nurvala. Various studies have been done to identify antioxidants from plant sources and efforts have been taken to incorporate them in conventional therapy. In our present study, ethanolic extract of Bark of Crataeva nurvala showed antioxidative potential, total phenolic and flavonoid contents along with the presence of various phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides, steroids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrates and tannins. Our current results emerged that Crataeva nurvala act as an antioxidant agent due to its free radical scavenging activity. So, the plant may be further pursued to find out for its pharmacological active natural products.

 

Key words: Crataeva nurvala, Antioxidants, Reactive oxygen species, total flavonoid content, total phenol content.

 

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