AJES
Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences
 
 
AJES


VOLUME 34: ISSUE 1

CONTENTS YEAR 2020

Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 34, No. 1, 2020; 1-11

 

Formulation and Production of Fresh Bread Using Jujube (Ziziphus jujube) Extracts

 

Hojjat Gharavi1 , Mehdi Ghiafeh Davoodi2*, Mehdi Pirozepoor3 , NedaTaghi Heravi4

 

1 Dept. of Food science and technology Islamic Azad University, Quchan branch. Iran
2 Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Mashhad, Iran,
3 Mersana food Company
4 Dept. of Agriculture and plant breeding Mersana food
E-mail : hojjat.g@live.com;
*Corresponding Author, mehdi.davoodi49@yahoo.com, mahdi@mersanafood.com; heravi.neda@gmail.com
Received: September 12, 2019
Revised: November 23, 2019
Accepted: November 30, 2019

 

Abstract :  Bread is the main food, globally, for many people due to its high nutritional value and feasible price. In Iran annual consumption of bread is more than other diets. Through bread consumption some vitamins, iron, calcium and protein will be supplied for us. Today, it is known that some diseases, such as indigestion, anemia, malnutrition and under-developed children problem, can be due to low quality bread. Therefore, in order to achieve improved quality, food additives and process aid materials that improve the quality of the bread should be used. Jujube fruit is one of the indigenous fruits of Iran. High antioxidant properties of this fruit has oriented attention to this product (jujube-based bread). In this study, at first, the jujube dried fruit juice was mixed with water and using direct heatto obtain the brix mixture of 15, then by using a rotary vaporizer, the final brix of 60 was achieved. To prepare the dough, the mixture was made with 100% flour, 2.5% oil, 1% salt, 1% sugar, 1% yeast and 0.5% flour improvement agent, along with different amounts of dry jujube and its extract. After adding the water to the mixer, the mixture was stirred for 15 minutes and then rest for 15 minutes. The dough is then divided into 120g pieces and placed in rest for 5 minutes, finallythe dough was flattened and placed in the oven. It is steamed for 45 minutes at 45░C and then cooked for 20 minutes at 200 ░C. By analyzing the results of physicochemical tests, breads containing 4 and 6% jujube extracts were selected as the best treatments at all-time intervals. However, analyzing the sensory properties, especially evaluation of panelists, at all-time intervals, samples containing 6% jujube extract showedsignificant difference from other samples and was selected as the best treatment.

 

Key words :  Evaluation of panelists, physicochemical tests, Powder baking, Jujube fruit.

 

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 34, No. 1, 2020; 13-17

 

Polyphenol Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Algerian Propolis Extracts

 

El-Khamsa Soltani*, Kamel Mokhnache, Noureddine Charef.

 

Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry, faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas SÚtif 1, 19000, Algeria.
E-mail: drsabrina@hotmail.fr
Received: Octberber 16, 2019
Revised: December 3, 2019
Accepted: December 12, 2019


 

Abstract : Aqueous and ethanolic extracts (EAP and EEP) of propolis sample collected from Serdj El Ghoul, region of SÚtif (east of Algeria), were prepared and evaluated to identify their biological activities. Total phenolic contents were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and found to be 164,690 ▒ 0,044 (EAP), 155,078 ▒ 0,176 mg cafeic acid equivalent/ g of propolis. Flavonoids were evaluated by AlCl3 method and shown to be 9,839▒ 0,006 (EAP), 55,758 ▒ 0,128 (EEP) mg quercetin equivalent/ g of propolis. The free radical scavenging potential of the extracts was determined by the DPPH method, the IC50 is estimated at 0.0865 (BHT), 0.0223 (EAP), 0.0194 (EEP) mg/mL. We can conclude that propolis contains molecules that are considered first class of antioxidants and can be used for therapeutic applications, knowing that antioxidants contribute very effectively to disease prevention such as cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

 

Key words : Propolis; aqueous extract; ethanolic extract; Antioxidant.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 34, No. 1, 2020; 19-24

 

Nutrient Status of Compost and Vermicompost Produced by Different Organic Wastes

 

Karuna S. Ganiger, Soumya R. Patil and Pulikeshi M. Biradar*

 

Department of Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580 003 (Karantaka), India
*E-mail: pulikeshi123@rediffmail.com
Received: December 2, 2019
Revised: December 13, 2019
Accepted: December 20, 2019

 

Abstract : Epigeic earthworms play an important role in biodegradation and recycling of organic wastes so as to produce quality vermicompost with high nutrient status. The present work was undertaken to check the quality of compost (without worms) and vermicompost (with Perioynx excavatus) produced out of different organic wastes [Cattle manure (CM), Copper Pod Waste (CPW), Parthenium Waste (PW) and Lawn Grass Waste (LGW)]. The produced compost and vermicompost were analysed for different physico-chemical parameters such as pH, EC, % Organic Carbon (OC) and available macro nutrients (N, P, K) through standard prescribed methods. The % organic carbon (OC) was comparatively more (69- 76%) in compost as compared to vermicompost(42-70%) whereas other physico-chemical parameters such as pH, EC were more in vermicompost (7.39-7.98; 2.0X102- 3.5X102) as that of compost (7.10-7.65; 2.0X102- 3.4X102S/m), likewise other macro nutrients such as N,P,K were almost more in vermicomposts (395.75-435.90;16.0-19.20 & 317.61-370.51kg/hec) than that of composts (240.89-401.89;13.60- 17.40 & 309.51-321.52kg/hec) of all organic wastes. Results of the present study revealed that the vermicompost produced from different organic wastes by the action of epigeic earthworm, Perionyx excavatus have all the essential physico-chemical parameters necessary for sustainable agriculture practices. Further, the quality of both compost and vermicompost primarily depends upon the nature of raw waste material used in the composting and vermicomposting process and the potentiality of the earthworm species used, role of saprophytic microorganisms in biodegradation and mineralization process and prevailing environmental conditions.

 

Key words : Nutrient status, Compost, Vermicompost, Organic wastes and Epigeic earthworm- Perionyx excavatus.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 34, No. 1, 2020; 25-28

 

Protein composition of Erinnyis ello l. (Lepidoptera:Sphingidae) haemolymph pre and post-infection with Bacillus thuringiensis

 

T. Boodram and A. Khan*

 

Department of Life Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad, West Indies.
*Corresponding author e-mail: ayub.khan@sta.uwi.edu
Received: December 2, 2019
Revised: December 15, 2019
Accepted: December 20, 2019

 

Abstract : A study of the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis (applied as Dipel) on the protein composition of haemolymph of 4 th instar Erinnyis ello was conducted. The larvae of E. ello were treated with B. thuringiensis and haemolymph extracted daily over a 3-day period. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE-SDS) was conducted on the haemolymph to determine changes in the protein concentrations before and after application of B. thuringiensis. The total haemolymph protein concentration as determined by Lowry's method on Days 1, 2 and 3 differed significantly from each other being highest on Day 3 (81.33 ▒ 1.25 µg/µl) and lowest on Day 2 (45.92 ▒ 1.25 µg/µl) post infection. There were a total of 13 protein bands present in the haemolymph of the untreated (control) larva, 15 in the haemolymph of the Day 1 treated larva, 15 in Day 2 treated larva and 10 in Day 3 treated larva. The viscosity and colour of the haemolymph on different days also varied.

 

Key words: Nutrient status, Compost, Vermicompost, Organic wastes and Epigeic earthworm- Perionyx excavatus.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 34, No. 1, 2020; 29-34

 

Trophic status of a tropical water body during a decade.

 

Nisar Ahmad Ganie1*, Ashwani Wanganeo1, Rajni Raina2

 

1 Department of Environmental Scienvces and Limnology Barkatullah University Bhopal.
2 Department of Zoology, Govt Science and Commerce College (Banazeer) Bhopal.
*Correspondance: ganienisar9@gmail.com

 

Abstract : The present study accesses the trophic status in relation to aquatic insect diversity of the Upper Lake of Bhopal. The results revealed an increase in the physico-chemical parameters viz., Total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), calcium hardness, total hardness, nitrate and orthophosphate when related with earlier studies (Wanganeo et al., 2011 and Bhat et al., 2012). The lake was found to be alkaline with pH (x¯= 8.14 units) and can be categorized as alkaliphilous. Moderate electrical conductivity (x¯=279.5 µScm-1) puts the water body under Mesotrophic status. Higher average alkalinity values (78.90 mgl-1) categorizes the water body into nutritionally rich. Higher nitrate values (x¯=1.24 mgl-1) puts the water body into the eutrophic condition. The overall study predicts the mesotrophic nature of Upper Lake of Bhopal. A total of 39 genera of aquatic insects belonging to 6 orders were recorded from the upper lake during the present study.

 

Key words: Trophic status, Aquatic insects, Upper Lake.

 

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AJES