AJES
Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences
 
 
AJES

 

 



VOLUME 27: ISSUE 1

CONTENTS YEAR 2013

Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 27, No. 1, 2013; 1-4

 

Histological changes in the thyroid gland during the female reproductive cycle in Hipposideros lankadiva (kelaart)

 

Emma R. Seraphim

 

Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, Nagpur 440033

Email: denisjovial@yahoo.co.in

Email: smrutithombare@yahoo.com

 

Abstract : The present investigation was undertaken to compare the histological changes in thyroid gland of female reproductive cycle of Hipposideros lankadiva (kelaart).Thyroid gland showed marked seasonal variation in weight, quantity of colloid and follicular epithelial height, suggesting that the thyroid gland remains inactive during quiescence and winter dormancy and it became active during the time of recrudescence and the remaining breeding behavior is similarly to the testicular cycle. Plasma thyroxin (T4) concentration showed a significant seasonal change with high concentration during the breeding and post-breeding period and low concentration during quiescence. The observations confirm that during diapauses the thyroid gland show hypothyroid condition. Probably the stored colloid material is used by bat after the arousal from torpor as embryonic development gains momentum. It is suggested that the increase in the consumption of colloid material after arousal from torpor is due to hyper- metabolism which might be the requirement of feto-placental unit in the pregnant animal. Although, the hypothyroidism is associated with infertility, sterility and abnormal in bats. The present study records that it may also be related to embryonic diapause and slow growth of embryo in H. lankadiva.

 

Key words : H. Lankadiva, Thyroid gland, Embryonic diapause, Reproductive cycle.

 

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 27, No. 1, 2013; 5-7

 

Morphology of Pyramidal neurons of Medial hippocampus in E. scolopaceus and P. krameri

 

Sippy Singh, Durgesh Singh, Parul Gaur and U.C. Srivastava

 

Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, India- 211002
E-mail id of Corresponding author: ucsrivastava@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract : Hippocampus in birds is divided into five fields namely: medial hippocampus, lateral hippocampus, parahippocampal area, central field of parahippocampus and crescent field. The pyramidal neurons are the main subtype of neuronal classes in the medial hippocampus of birds. An attempt has been made to study and compare the morphology of pyramidal neurons in the medial hippocampus of E. scolopaceus and P. krameri. It was observed that pyramidal neurons of E. scolopaceus were more advanced in terms of soma diameter and dendritic field in comparison to P. krameri showing more networking of pyramidal cells in E. scolopaceus.

 

Key words : E. scolopaceus, P. krameri, Medial hippocampus, Soma diameter, Dendritic field.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 27, No. 1, 2013; 9-17

 

Recovery in Acid Aluminium Induced Toxicity in Gills with Silicon Dioxide in Channa punctatus (Bloch)

 

Veenapani, Pushpa Surin1 and N.S.Sen

 

Department of Zoology, Nirmala College, Ranchi- 834002
Department of Zoology, Birsa College, Khunti, Ranchi.
Department of Zoology, Ranchi University, Ranchi-834008
E-mail: nisargasen.ru@gmail.com

 

Abstract : Water pH affects the solubility of Al metal. Gills in fishes serve vital functions like gaseous exchange and acid- base balance which is damaged due to metal toxicity. Under acidic condition at pH < 5 aluminium (Al (SO ) ) at sublethal dose (140 mg/l) brings morphological alterations in the gills including lamellar fusion, dealignment of microridged epithelial cells and hyperplasia of epithelial cells. These abnormalities can be attributed to response to prevent the entry of metal in the gills. The toxicity of aluminium on the gills of fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) can be reduced with the application of Silicon dioxide. Damage to the gill epithelium was discernibly lessened by the ameliorating effect of Silicon dioxide, which reduced the alterations in the gills effectively and in turn it increased survival in the fish.

 

Key words : Acid, Aluminium, Fish gill, Silicon dioxide, Amelioration

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 27, No. 1, 2013; 19-28

 

On-line Monitoring Plant Biomass for Large-scale Production of Thymus Vulgaris, a Medicinal and Culinary Herb

 

Tania Moses and Usha Mukundan

 

Department of Botany, Ramniranjan Jhunjhunwala College, Ghatkopar (W), Mumbai. 400086
Corresponding author E-mail Address - taniamoses@gmail.com,
Phone: 022 25152731, Fax: 022 25150957

 

Abstract : In the present study the mass scale culture of Thymus vulgaris L. was made in a Balloon-type bubble column bioreactor (BTBB). It is suggested that T. vulgaris can be used as a model system for the formulation of a mathematical model and will be used for on-line monitoring of biomass. The biomass accumulation was monitored within the reactor through measurements of electrical conductivity as the measure of the ion uptake and refractive index as a measure of the sugar uptake. The correlation of electrical conductivity or refractive index of the medium and the biomass has been formulated in the form of a mathematical model as proposed by Ramakrishnan et al. (1999). The biomass in terms of dry weight that accumulated after 25 days in the 5 L reactor (BTBB) was 3.151 gm/L. Destructive and on-line methods of biomass estimation gave similar results. The productivity of thymol, an active ingredient with distinct flavour and aroma in the shoots of T. vulgaris L was estimated to be 88.228 g/L for each run in the bioreactor.

 

Key words : Thymus vulgaris, On-line monitoring, Bioreactor (BTBB ), Electrical conductivity, Refractive index, Mathematical model.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 27, No. 1, 2013; 29-30

 

First record of metacercaria of a rare reptilian trematode Kaurma Chatterji, 1936 from a gastropod Pila globosa Swainson, near district Barabanki.

 

Shailendra Ray, K.C. Pandey and Nirupama Agrawal

 

Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow. 226007

 

Abstract : Chatterji, 1936 established the genus Kaurma Chatterji, 1936 with E. longicirra as its type specis, for the adult trematodes, collected from the intestine of a freshwater turtle Emyda scutata Peters, 1868 of Rangoon and placed it under the family Allocreadiidae Stossich, 1904 and the subfamily Allocreadiinae Looss, 1899. During course of present investigations on the trematodes of snails of district Barabanki, several specimens (37) of Pila globosa Swainson examined, the gut of only four was found infected with the metacercarial stage of trematodes. A careful and thorough examination revealed them to be of the genus Kaurma Chatterji, 1936 as they bear all the characters of the adult, except the eggs. Gastropods, in general act as intermediate hosts in the life cycle of trematodes but records of metacercariae or adults in Pila globosa are not many in India [Anjaneyulu (1967), Murty (1970) and Pandey (1973)]. The present contribution is second in its series by the present authors.

 

Key words : Kaurma, metacercaria, Pila globosa.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 27, No. 1, 2013; 31-35

 

Histoenzymological distribution of acetylcholinesterase in the Corpus cerebelli of two Indian air breathing teleosts.

 

Matiur Rahman , Anurag Tripathi , Balarko Chakraborty

 

1 Doranda College, Ranchi.
2. Ranchi College, Ranchi University, Ranchi.
Corresponding Author Dr. Anurag Tripathi.
Ranchi College, Ranchi University, Ranchi. Mob. No. 9955489044.

 

Abstract : The present study describes the distribution of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) in the various layers of corpus cerebella of brain of two Indian air breathing teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis and Channa punctatus. The distribution pattern of enzyme showed uneven distribution of enzyme in all the three layers of corpus cerebelli. The outermost molecular layer (ML) in Heteropneustes fossilis showed fainted activity for AChE, while the Purkinje cells (PC) present in the intermediate layer exhibit strong cholinesterase positive reaction in their cell bodies. The inner granular layer (GL) also demonstrated intense reaction to AChE. However, the molecular layer (ML) and the inner granular layer of corpus cerebelli of Channa punctatus also showed strong intense reaction in comparison to Heteropneustes fossilis. The Purkinje cells in the intermediate layer exhibit mild or no activity. It is suggested that the variability of AChE distribution may perhaps deals with noncholinergic role in addition to its main cholinergic role.

 

Key words : Acetylcholinesterase, Purkinje cell, Granular layer, Cerebellum, Brain.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 27, No. 1, 2013; 37-45

 

Antifeeding and Insecticidal Potentials of Verbenaceous Botanicals against grubs of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr. (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae)

 

B.S.Chandel,1 A.B.Bajpai 2and Atul Singh

 

1. Biopesticides and Toxicological Lab., P.G.Department of Zoology, D.B.S.College, Kanpur
2. P.G. Department of Botany, D.B.S. P.G. College, Deharadoon.
3. P.G. Department of Botany, D.B.S. P.G. College, Kanpur.
Email: chandelkanpur@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract : In present study, the insecticidal and antifeedant activity of alcohol extracts of leaves, seed and bark of four verbenaceous plants have been evaluated on the 3 instar grubs of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr. The plants used in this investigation are Clerodendron siphonanthus, Lantana camara Linn, Lippia geminate HBK and Vitex negundo Linn. The antifeedant activity was assessed through the feeding protection bioassay. Based on the EC50 values, the extracts of Vitex seed and Lantana unripe fruit showed significant protection power against insects. The EC50 values were 0.015 and 0.027 respectively which are statistically significant. Vitex seeds extract showed high toxicity within 48 hours with mean mortality rate as 80.86 % where as L. camara unripe fruits, L. camara leaves and Clerodendron leaves produced 78.26 %, 68.83% and 67.90% grub mortality respectively. The toxic percentage of the effects of extract of roots and seeds of C. siphonanthus, leaves of V. negundo , bark of V. negundo and geminating leaves of L. geminate were observed as 65.70, 65.50, 64.66, 64.16, 48.93 and 35.90 respectively within the same period of 48 hrs. It is suggested that these plants can be used as bio-control as insecticides.

 

Key words : Biocontrol, Instar gurb, Antifeedant.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 27, No. 1, 2013; 47-54

 

The Histopathological Study of Brain of Catla catla Exposed to Dimethoate.

 

1. Manju Singh, 2. Santosh Kumar

 

1. Department of Zoology, I.P. College, Bulandshahar, Moradabad-230001 (U.P.)
email: manjuipc2000@gmail.com,
2. Former Professor, Department of Bio Science, Barkatullah University, Bhopal and Former Vice Chancellor, Dr. H.S.Gour University, Sagar (M.P.) India
e-mail: santosh9kumar@gmail.com

 

Abstract : The histopathological changes were evaluated in the brain tissue of Indian major carp, Catla catla after chronic exposure to an organophosphate pesticide, the dimethoate. The experimental group was exposed to sublethal dose of dimethoate (0.001 ppm) for four weeks. The different regions of brain were sectioned at 5-12 thick by paraffin embedding process. For the study of histology of nerve tissue silver impregnation technique was employed while for routine histology, the sections were stained with hematoxyline counter stained with eosin. The nerve cells showed necrosis, vacuolation, loss of cytoplasm and Nissl's bodies. The nerve bundles become loose and show dispersal of nerve fibrils in all parts of the brain. The severe damage was noticed in the optic tectum but less damage was noticed in the organelles of the Purkinje cells and also in the granular layer of cerebellum. The necrosis in axons of Mauthner cells in medullary region was prominent. The present study reveals that dimethoate even in 0.001concentraion is highly toxic to brain of the carp fingerlings and may lead to subsequent killing of fish.

 

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 27, No. 1, 2013; 55-59

 

Use of FTA in nucleic acid research: An optimization study for G6PD gene with FTA.

 

1. Ruchira Chaudhary, 2. K. Thangaraj, 3. Nitin Pathak, 3. Jyoti Jain, 3. Gunjan Sharma,

 

1. Professor and Co-ordinator, Biotech division, Dept. of Zoology, Govt. M.V.M., Bhopal.
2. Scientist, CCMB (Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology), Hyderabad
3. Research Scholars, Biotechnology division, Govt. M.V.M., Bhopal.
Corresponding author : Nitin Pathak, Govt. M.V.M., Bhopal (nitinpnp@gmail.com,)

 

Abstract : In the present study the standardization and then modification has been done in the protocol of Whatman FTA cards for G6PD gene which plays an important role in RBCs metabolism. The present modification showed better result in PCR program for G6PD gene. The results suggest that the optimization was best observed with 2 discs instead of 1 disc as per standard protocol given in the literature. It is noticed that best results were observed with 10 pmol of forward and reverse primers and 12 ul of master mix instead of 15 ul for total 20 ul reaction mixtures. The annealing temperature should be 61C which is more sensitive instead of 60C as reported in the protocol. It is also suggested that the present alteration in the protocol is best suited for Indian conditions as the study showing clean and sharp peaks in the electropherogram of 5 G6PD samples.

 

Key words : G6PD, PCR, Whatman FTA Classic cards.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 27, No. 1, 2013; 61-66

 

Potential use of Glucanase from Ampelomyces quisqualis DSM 2222 in Food and Textile Processing.

 

S. L. SAMANT, R. NAIR

 

1. Department of Microbiology, Bhavan's College, Andheri (w), Mumbai 400058
*Corresponding Author Email: slsbha@yahoo.com, Mobile number: 9820990743

 

Abstract : Agro substrates like barley and oats were used for the production of glucanase from Ampelomyces quisqualis DSM 2222. Solid barley medium adjusted to pH 5.0 and supplemented with 0.1% KNO was used for harvesting the enzyme.
The enzyme was purified at 60% saturation with ammonium sulphate followed by ultrafiltration using a 30kD cellulose acetate filter aid. Maximum glucanase activity of 533.3 units/ min was associated with the retentate and having a protein content of 3.3 mg/ ml. The enzyme yield was 0.22 mg of protein per gram of solid barley. This enzyme exhibited maximum activity in the presence of 0.05% Cu , insensitivity towards Na , K , Mg , Ca and optimum activity in the pH range 5-6. However, the enzyme was completely inactivated in presence of Hg
Enzyme produced by A. quisqualis was able to show a 46.16% reduction in viscosity as compared to a 4.7% exhibited by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus, thus, indicating its potential use in the brewing industry. Bioscouring of cotton fabric was also carried out using a standard glucanase and that produced by A. quisqualis. The results obtained were comparable to the standard enzyme but holds a promising potential for use in the textile industry.

 

Key words : Ampelomyces quisqualis DSM 2222, Glucanase, Barley, Ultrafiltration, Viscosity, Bioscouring.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 27, No. 1, 2013; 67-72

 

Carotid Intima-media Thickness as a Surrogate Marker of Atherosclerosis and its Correlation with Coronary Risk Factors and Angiographic Severity of Coronary Artery Disease.

 

1. Rajeev Gupta, 2. Rajendra Gupta

 

1. Associate Professor, Department of Cardiology, Govt. Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal M.P. (India) 462011
Email: drrajeevgupta1@yahoo.co.in
2. Radiologist Correspondence Address: Dr. Rajeev Gupta, MD, DM (Cardiology), E3/176, Arera Colony, Bhopal - 462016

 

Abstract : Carotid arterial intima-media thickness(CIMT) has been a good indicator of the presence and extent of coronary artery disease(CAD) in observational studies. Since treadmill testing and stress echocardiography can have limited specificity in diagnosing CAD, other surrogate markers of CAD and Atherosclerosis are required. Biochemical investigations for risk factor's and B-mode ultrasound examinations were performed to calculate CIMT. All the patients were catheterized percutaneously via the femoral vessels with standard Judkins technique and angiographic scoring of CAD was performed. CIMT was higher in subjects with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, dyslipidaemia, and males. The extent and severity scores for CAD were all positively correlated with CIMT (p<0.0001). A significant, nearly linear correlation betweenCIMT and advancing CAD (p<0.0001) was found. Patients with one, two and three vessel CAD had significantly higher CIMT than the patients without CAD. The univariate logistic regression analysis showed that increased CIMT levels were associated with severity of atherosclerosis. There is a strong correlation between carotid atherosclerosis and coronary atherosclerosis, and CIMT is a good predictor of presence and extent of CAD, hence it can be used as a surrogate marker in the prediction of pre-clinical atherosclerosis and CAD.

 

Key words : Myocardial infarction, Coronary artery Byepass graft, Cerebrovascular accident, Triglycerides, Highdensity lipoprotein, Lowdensity lipoprotein.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., V 27, No. 1, 2013; 73-79

 

Impact of Nitrogenous Fertilizers on the Quality of Shallow Groundwater in the Upper Alluvial Plains of Narmada Valley Between Hoshandabad and Bhilaria, M.P., India.

 

1. Vinod Kumar Parashar, 2. Sunil Sharma, 2. R.N. Saxena

 

1. Deptt. of Geology, Govt. Motilal Vigyan Mahavidyalaya, Bhopal (M.P.), India
2. Prof. & Head (Retd.), Deptt. of Applied Geology, Barkatullah University, Bhopal (M.P.), India

 

Abstract : Carotid arterial intima-media thickness(CIMT) has been a good indicator of the presence and extent of coronary artery disease(CAD) in observational studies. Since treadmill testing and stress echocardiography can have limited specificity in diagnosing CAD, other surrogate markers of CAD and Atherosclerosis are required. Biochemical investigations for risk factor's and B-mode ultrasound examinations were performed to calculate CIMT. All the patients were catheterized percutaneously via the femoral vessels with standard Judkins technique and angiographic scoring of CAD was performed. CIMT was higher in subjects with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, dyslipidaemia, and males. The extent and severity scores for CAD were all positively correlated with CIMT (p<0.0001). A significant, nearly linear correlation betweenCIMT and advancing CAD (p<0.0001) was found. Patients with one, two and three vessel CAD had significantly higher CIMT than the patients without CAD. The univariate logistic regression analysis showed that increased CIMT levels were associated with severity of atherosclerosis. There is a strong correlation between carotid atherosclerosis and coronary atherosclerosis, and CIMT is a good predictor of presence and extent of CAD, hence it can be used as a surrogate marker in the prediction of pre-clinical atherosclerosis and CAD.

 

Key words : Myocardial infarction, Coronary artery Byepass graft, Cerebrovascular accident, Triglycerides, Highdensity lipoprotein, Lowdensity lipoprotein.

 

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AJES