AJES
Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences
 
 
AJES

 

 



VOLUME 25: ISSUE 1

CONTENTS YEAR 2011

Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 01-03

 

Negotiating Without Goals or Science: Have the Risks of Climate Change Diminished?

 

John Cairns, Jr.

 

Department of Biological Sciences,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA

 

Abstract :  Humans cannot negotiate with Mother Nature (i.e., the natural laws of physics, chemistry, and biology); all they can do is agree upon how and when they will conform to these laws. The Copenhagen Conference on Global Climate Change held in December 2009 failed utterly to produce any quantitative goals on emissions or dates by which they would be reduced despite massive scientific evidence that reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to match Earth's assimilative capacity for them is long overdue and should begin immediately. The time has probably already passed for keeping the global temperature increase below 2C despite the link between climate change and resource constraints. The 3-page accord that US President Obama negotiated with the leaders of China, India, Brazil, and South Africa failed to set a 2010 goal for reaching a binding international treaty to seal the provisions of the accord. In short, the negotiations at Copenhagen did not result in crisp, numerical goals and objectives.

 

Key words : Climate negotiations, Laws of nature, Tipping Points, Greenhouse gas emissions, Universal emission targets, Climate change.

 

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 05-08

 

Differential Accumulation of Rotenoids in the Roots of Boerhaavia diffusa L.Collected from Different Locations

 

Prem Kumar Dantu

 

Department of Botany
Dayalbagh Educational Institute
(Deemed University)
Dayalbagh, Agra (U.P.); India.

 

Abstract : The bioactive principal, rotenoid, from the roots of Boerhaavia diffusa collected from various locations of NCT Delhi was extracted using organic solvents and determined with HPLC and compared with the standard isoflavenoid (rotenone). Six locations were selected for the study: Tuglaqabad, Dhaulakuan, Ridge area (Delhi University, North Campus), Nangloi, Saidulajab, Jawaharlal Nehru University area. Roots of the same age were collected for the comparison. Considerable variation was observed in the rotenoid content of the roots collected from different locations.

 

Key words :Boerhaavia diffusa, Rotenoid, HPLC, Variation

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 09-11

 

Effect of Carbaryl Supplemented Feed on Biochemistry in Broiler Chicks

 

Sabina Khanam* and Vijay Laxmi Saxena

 

Department of Zoology,
D.G. College, Civil Lines,
Kanpur-208001 (U.P.); India

 

Abstract :This study investigated carbaryl impact on blood serum cholesterol and creatinine on broiler chicks. Broiler chicks were used in the study and the animals were divided in four groups: one control and three experimental groups. Carbaryl was added into diet of experimental broiler chicks at three different doses, low (15mg/kgb.w.), intermediate (20mg/kgb.w.), and high dose (25mg/kgb.w.) for 21 days. Blood from wing vein was analyzed for serum cholesterol, and creatinine. Cholesterol level was increased insignificantly (p>0.005) in low dose and high dose but was similar to control in intermediate dose. Creatinine level was (non significant at p>0.005) increased in low, intermediate and in high doses.

 

Key words :Carbaryl supplementation, Broiler chicks, Biochemistry.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 13-14

 

Biospheric Change and Species Selection

 

John Cairns, Jr.

 

Department of Biological Sciences
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061
USA

 

Abstract : Any global disturbance will exert a selective pressure on all species on the planet, including Homo sapiens. Earth is changing rapidly and humans are responsible. Global crises are worsening, and some of the worst (e.g., exponential human population growth) are not even being discussed. In the five great extinction crises, species extinction sometimes exceeded 90%. Many species alive at the time of the Industrial Revolution are now extinct. Current trends (e.g., anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions) indicate a strong probability that more species will become extinct in the 21st century. Some species will adapt to irreversible change - some will not.

 

Key words :Natural selection, Rapid change, Ecological overshoot, Economic growth, Humankind’s life support system, Population growth.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 15-21

 

Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Jusieu) Biodiversity in India for Bioresource: Azadirachtin - An Important Biopesticide

 

U.K. Tomar1 and Nutan Kaushik2

 

1. Forest Genetics & Tree Breeding Division
Arid Forest Research Institute
Jodhpur (Raj.); India.
2. Bioresources & Biotechnology Division TERI, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road,
New Delhi-110 003; India.

 

Abstract : Azadirachta indica A. Juss., or neem, is a multipurpose tropical tree belonging to the family Meliaceae. The species is of commercial importance, primarily due to its medicinal and biopesticidal properties. With this view studies were conducted to assess the biodiversity in neem for Azadirachtin in Gujarat as well as in other states of India.

            Three hundred and sixty seven seed samples collected, from four different agro-ecological zones of Gujarat state of India, were assessed for the azadirachtin content. These studies included a general survey on the region and on annual average variation in azadirachtin level in three consecutive years (2000, 2001, and 2002). More than hundred trees were selected for azadirachtin content in each year. Individual trees exhibited tremendous variation in their azadirachtin content and it ranged from 142 ppm to 9527 ppm (g/g of the kernel). The data were analysed by clustering the observations on the basis of agro-ecological zones, year of collection, and girth classes. Significant differences in mean azadirachtin content were observed in different zones as per ANOVA analysis at 5% level. Zone AER 5B recorded significantly higher azadirachtin contents as compared to other three zones. Highly significant results were also observed on collection year basis. Present investigations also revealed that average azadirachtin content is not significantly influenced by age of the tree.

       Azadirachtin content in the seeds of neem collected from different regions of India was also studied. The concentration of azadirachtin varied from 200 to 16,000 ppm (mg/g of the seed kernel). Azadirachtin content was found to be affected by climate and habitat. Annual variation in azadirachtin content was significant. The highest azadirachtin content was recorded in the neem tree populations growing in the southern part of India.

 

Key words : Agro-ecological zones, Girth-class, Seed, Tetranortriterpenoid, Variability

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 23-27

 

Host Plant-Antheraea Mylitta Interactions and Its Effect on Reproductive and Commercial Parameters

 

S.S. Rath*, G.S. Singh, S.S. Singh, M.K. Singh and N.B. Vijayaprakash

 

Central Tasar Research and Training Institute
Piska Nagri
Ranchi-835303 (Jharkhand); India

 

Abstract : Impact of food plant on reproductive and commercial parameters in Antheraea mylitta, a polyphagous insect of economic importance was studied upon feeding the insect larvae on the same host plants for six continuous generations. A. mylitta larvae were fed upon Terminalia tomentosa, Terminalia arjuna and Zizyphus jujuba and restricted them to the same host plant for six generations to document the quantitative improvement in reproductive and commercial parameters. The parameters showed significant improvement in all the host plants studied over their respective controls. Fecundity among the reproductive parameters was highly improved than others (85.9% in T. tomentosa; 58% in T. arjuna and 49.7% in Z. jujuba). Likewise in commercial parameters, the shell weight in male showed the highest improvement (by 52.9%, 45.8% and 42.1% in T. tomentosa; T. arjuna and Z. jujuba, respectively). On the other hand, the shell ratio percentage in female recorded the lowest improvement. The values for all characters were recorded a decline in T. arjuna and Z. jujuba fed ones over T. tomentosa, except that of shell ratio percentage in female has registered an increase in Z. jujuba fed. The study thus revealed the comparative superiority of T. tomentosa over T. arjuna and Z. jujuba. .

 

Key words :Host plant, Terminalia tomentosa, Terminalia arjuna and Zizyphus jujuba, Antheraea mylitta.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 29-35

 

Chromium Removal from Industrial Effluent by Eucalyptus tereticornis Bark

 

Indu Sharma* and Dinesh Goyal

 

Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences
Thapar University
Patiala-147004 (Punjab); India.
.

 

Abstract: Removal of chromium from industrial effluent was investigated using Eucalyptus tereticornis bark with various parameters including amount of biomass, pH of solution and contact time. Biomass (2%) was able to remove 88% and 91.5% of chromium at pH 4.0 and pH 5.0, respectively from solution amended with 50 mg of Cr6+ l/L. Maximum chromium removal capacities of treated bark biomass were 70% and 94% from tannery effluent and chrome plating effluent, respectively in column mode. The adsorption parameters were determined using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms model. Calorific values of native bark biomass, tannery effluent and chrome plating effluent treated biomass were 2227, 3885 and 4003 kcal/kg, respectively with increases in chromium laden biomass. The results revealed that chromium loaded bark biomass can be disposed off by incineration or used in furnace as a fuel.

 

Key words :Adsorption isotherms, Bark biomass, Calorific values, Chromium, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Industrial effluent.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 37-40

 

Phytotoxicity of Fluoride on a Wheat Variety (Triticum aestivum var. Raj. 4083) and its Bioaccumulation at the Reproductive Phase.

 

Devika Bhargava* and Nagendra Bhardwaj

 

Department of Botany,
University of Rajasthan,
Jaipur - 302004 (Raj.); India.
.

 

Abstract : The objective of the present study was to study the effects of different concentrations of NaF on different morphological characters, yield and its bioaccumulation in wheat variety (Triticum aestivum var. Raj. 4083). In a pot experiment, a wheat variety was irrigated with 4 - 16 mg/L NaF (4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mg/L). The experiments were carried out for the entire life cycle of 120 days of this wheat variety. Plants were harvested after 120 days of sowing of seeds. There were significant changes in morphological characters and yield attributes in plants treated with 16 and 20 mg/L NaF. In plants treated with 20mg/L, significant reductions in shoot length (by 25.16%), root length (by 32.14%), number of leaves (by 42.40%), leaf area (by 19.50%) and grain yield (by 16.26%) were observed. Bioaccumulation studies of fluoride in plant parts revealed maximum accumulation in roots (4.24g/g) and minimum in leaves (1.45g/g) in plants treated with 20mg/L NaF. Results of the study showed that use of groundwater containing high fluoride content for irrigating wheat plants may be detrimental to its growth and yield.

 

Key words : Bioaccumulation, Groundwater, Morphological characters, Yield attributes.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 41-44

 

Evaluating Potential of Spirulina as Innoculant for Pulses

 

Dola Bhowmik*, Jaishree Dubey and Sandeep Mehra

 

Lab of Phycology, Department of Botany
Dr. H.S. Gour Central University,
Sagar (M.P.); India.

 

Abstract : Many non- heterocystous cyanobacteria are also capable of nitrogen fixation and improve plant growth. Spirulina platensis and S. maxima at concentration of 500 mg and 1000 mg/kg soil were tested on two plants Phaseolus aureus and P. mungo. Growth was measured in terms of plant shoot lengths. The leaf chlorophyll content and protein content of the grains of both the plants were analyzed. Shoot length of both the plants were increased to almost two to two and a half times after 30 days. The leaf chlorophyll content and the protein content in the grains of the plants were not improved significantly. Conclusion was drawn that inoculation of Spirulina shows no beneficial effects in the crop plants though it gives excellent results in increase of protein contents in human beings.

 

Key words : Non-heterocystous, Nitrogen fixation, Shoot length, Chlorophyll content, Protein content.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 45-47

 

Preference of ABO and Rh Blood Group Distribution among Tobacco Users of Coimbatore, South India

 

Vivek Marimuthu, Steffi Sesurajan, Bhuvaneswari Mani and Sudha Sellappa*

 

Department of Biotechnology
School of Life Sciences, Karpagam University,
Coimbatore (TN); India

 

Abstract : This study was undertaken to find out the trend of blood group distribution (ABO and Rh) among tobacco users. The subjects were 372 male and 28 female tobacco users ranging in age from 20 to 51 years. They were classified into three categories according to their tobacco habits: smokers, chewers and snuffers. The association between tobacco habits and blood group was evaluated using 2 analysis. The frequency of distribution of blood groups was 37.25 %( B), 33.5 %( O), 23% (A) and 6.255% (AB) respectively. In this study, blood group B was found to be predominant among the smokers and tobacco chewers. Thus, we conclude that, blood group phenotype B is associated with a substantially increased risk for tobacco addiction.

 

Key words: ABO blood group, Rh typing, Tobacco.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 49-54

 

Alterations in some Haematological levels during reproductive phases of the Indian fresh water fish Notopterus notopterus (Pallas).

 

V. S. Barad and R. S. Kulkarni

 

 

  

 

  

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2010; 55-58

 

Assessment of Heavy Metal Toxicity in Soils Nearby Municipal Solid Waste Dumping Site, Mathuradaspura - Jaipur

 

Anirudh Sahni* and Abhishek Gautam

 

Department of Environmental Science
Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra (Ranchi),
Jaipur Campus, Jaipur (Raj.); India.

 

Abstract: Increasing population and unplanned urbanisation have resulted in vast problem of disposal of municipal solid waste. MSW has its inevitable effects on pollution of air, water and soil depending upon the type of waste material. The soil pollution not only affects the human health but also the total ecosystem including the flora and fauna of the area. The present study is aimed to evaluate the soils around the MSW dumping site (Mathuradaspura-Jaipur) with special reference to heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd). The soils of all the four seasons was collected, analysed and found that the heavy metals are present in all the samples of the study area.

 

Key words : MSW, Heavy metals, Soil, Seasonal variation, Toxicity.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 59-62

 

Anaerobic Digested Slurry -An Input For Sustainable Agriculture

 

Neena Arora1 and Pramila Maini2

 

1 Sri Sathya Sai College for Women Bhopal (M.P.); India.
2 Institute for Excellence in Higher Education Bhopal (M.P.); India.

 

Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of agro residues and cattle waste produces bio-gas which is used as domestic fuel and the digested slurry can be used as manure for crop production. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the nitrogen through chemical fertilizer and bio-gas spent slurry in different proportion on production of soybean-wheat rotation. Study reveals that soybean crop showed maximum grain yield (21.05+0.1q/ ha) in year 2005 with the combination of T-3((N75S25) while the maximum grain yield of 21.19+0.1 q/ha was found with the combination of T-4(N50S50) in second year of field trial (2006). Similarly in rabi season with wheat crop in 2005-2006, maximum grain yield of 41.84+0.1q/ha was recorded with T-3 ((N75S25) and in 2006-2007 maximum grain yield of 43.41+0.1 q/ha was observed with the combination T-4(N50S50) which may be due to improvement in soil health. Integration of chemical fertilizer along with bio-gas slurry proved beneficial and economical as it not only saved chemical fertilizer but also maintained soil health.

 

Key words: Chemical fertilizer, Biogas slurry, Soybean, Wheat, Grain yield, Soil health.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 63-66

 

Effect of Feeding Trial on Commercial Characters in Tropical Tasar Silkworm Antheraea mylitta Drury

 

G.S. Singh*, S.S. Rath, S.S. Singh, M.K. Singh and N.B. Vijayaparakash

 

Central Tasar Research and Training Institute
Nagri
Ranchi (Jharkhand); India.

 

Abstract: Tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta D. is a polyphagous insect and is reared out door on the food plant like as Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia tomentosa, Shorea robusta. Productivity of cocoon in outdoor rearing is poor due to attack of number of pests and predators besides natural vagaries such as, wide fluctuating temperature, heavy rain and stormy wind etc. Attempts were made in the past to increase the cocoon production by adopting various methods of indoor rearing particularly for early instar worms and also by improving the rearing conditions. The present study of indoor rearing was conducted in wooden tray supported with wooden rearing frames specially designed for young age and late age silkworms. Trials were taken up to determine optimum number of feeds per day for indoor rearing of tasar silkworm. Three feed per day resulted significantly higher effective rate of rearing (35% and 30 % during I and II crop respectively). Significant increase in commercial characters (cocoon weight and shell weight) was observed under three feedings condition than other feeding treatments.

 

Key words : Antheraea mylitta, Indoor rearing, Wooden rearing frame.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 67-71

 

Amino Acids Analysis in Whole Saliva by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

 

Subbarayalu Alagendran*, Enrique Armando Orozco Bonilla, Patricia Severiano Perez#, Adriana Mayoral Mariles, Elena Jimenez and Rosalinda Guevara Guzmn

 

Sensorial Physiology Laboratory,
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine,
#Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry,
UNAM, Mexico
AV.Universidad 3000, C.P, 04510, Mexico D.F

 

Abstract: The objective of the study was to determine optimal conditions for sampling, sample dispensation for amino acid analysis in women saliva with the aid of identify nutritional deficits. We quantify the amino acid concentration by high performance liquid chromatography during salivary amino acids in 10 young women bear with anorexia nervosa during a period of significant loss of body weight, compared with 10 healthy age-matched controls. Free amino acid levels in saliva were similar in both groups, however significantly higher levels of Taurine, Glutamine and phenlyalanine were found in anorexia nervosa patients, as well as significantly lower levels of arginine, tyrosine and tryptophan compared with controls. The salivary amino acids difference in anorexia nervosa patients can be explicate with severe protein malnutrition deficit.

 

Key words : Anorexia nervosa, Amino acids, Saliva, OPA, HPLC

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 73-80

 

Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Activity of Actiniopteris radiata (Sw.) Link

 

M. Manjunath*, G. Lavanya, R. Sivajyothi and O.V.S. Reddy

 

Sensorial Department of Biochemistry
S.V. University,
Tirupati (A.P.); India.

 

Abstract: Medicinal plants are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants that can protect biological system from oxidative stress. In the present, study, the antioxidative potential of different solvent extracts (n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous) of Actiniopteris radiata (Sw.) link were evaluated using different in vitro methods. Among all the solvent extracts, ethanol extract of A. radiata, showed potent activity and the inhibitory concentrations of extract at 50% (IC50) were 742.11, 670.80, 505.902, 372.43 and 425.23 g/mL for DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, metal chelating and anti-lipid peroxidation activities, respectively and were nearly similar to that of the standard antioxidant tested. Moreover, ethanol extract of A. radiata showed strong reducing power, which denotes the antioxidant capacity of the extract. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of A. radiata is a good source of natural antioxidants.

 

Key words : In vitro antioxidant activity, Medicinal herb, Actiniopteris radiata.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 81-85

 

Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Low Income Group Women of Nagpur, India

 

Dr. Yogesh Sabde*1 and Dr. Sanjay Zodpey2

 

1 Community Medicine
R.D. Gardi Medical College
Ujjain (M.P.); India.
2 PHFI New Delhi; India.

 

Abstract: The constantly increasing tobacco epidemic is considered as the most important risk factor for increasing lung cancer cases in the world in general and South East Asian countries in particular. In countries like India, the smoking rates among women are significantly low but the proportion of cancer patients who never smoked tobacco is also alarming. The high cancer rates in non smoker women are due to secondhand indoor tobacco smoke exposure. This fact has been ignored and appropriate interventions are lacking in this direction. The present study was conducted to determine the second hand smoke exposure among non smoker females of low socioeconomic groups. In this study it was observed that the smoking was predominantly a habit of males (40.4%). It is also noticed that 32.21% of the non smoker females were being exposed to the second hand tobacco smoke due to the indoor smoking of their male counter parts. The present study reveals that a majority (143/153, 93.46%) of the smokers exposed their family members (average 5.37 per smoker) to the hazard of environmental tobacco smoke due to overcrowded houses in slum areas. Till date no other known external carcinogen that has been documented to expose such a huge proportion (32.21%) of female population. Hence it is suggested that the increasing lung cancer cases in non smoker women is due to exposure of secondhand exposure of tobacco and needs the intervention at household level.

 

Key words : Secondhand tobacco smoke, Women's health, Lung cancer risk, Low Socioeconomic group.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 87-91

 

Enhancement of Machine Utilization considering Multiple Lot Scheduling with FCFS Dispatching Rule

 

R.K. Dwivedi*, Dr. V.K. Khare and Dr. H.B. Khurasia

 

Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology,
Bhopal-462051 (M.P.); India

 

Abstract:Productivity of a particular company or manufacturing industry depends on various factors like labor, machinery, raw materials, degree of computerization, automation, so on and so forth. Companies can increase their productivity in a variety of ways. The main technique and simple logic behind the increase in productivity of any manufacturing industry is the utilization of resources effectively, the resources need not to be only tangible ones it may be even plans and schedules. This paper deals with the multiple lots scheduling and its effects on machine utilization to minimize the total completion time of the lots allocated to shop floor.

 

Key words : Multiple lots scheduling, FCFS, Productivity, Machine utilization.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011; 93-102

 

Comparative In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and HPTLC Fingerprint of Averrhoa bilmbi linn. and Averrhoa carambola linn. Fruit Extracts

 

Avinash G. Patil*, Darshana A. Patil, Abhishek J. Sharma and Naresh Chandra

 

Department of Botany-Herbal Sciences
Birla College
Kalyan-421304 (Mah.); India.

 

Abstract:There is a growing interest in the food industry and in preventive health care for the evaluation and development of natural antioxidants from medicinal plant materials. In the present work, aqueous extracts of Averrhoa bilmbi Linn. and Averrhoa carambola Linn. fruits were screened for their phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by Total Antioxidant Activity (TAA), Ferric Reducing Power (FRP), Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium scavenging activity (NBT). HPTLC fingerprint of methanolic extract of Averrhoa bilmbi Linn. and Averrhoa carambola Linn. with Tannic acid and Ascorbic acid was developed. The results indicate that aqueous extracts of Averrhoa bilmbi Linn. had the highest antioxidant capacity as Ferric Reducing power and Nitric oxide scavenging activity. While aqueous extract of Averrhoa carambola Linn. showed higher percent inhibition than Averrhoa bilmbi Linn. in Nitro Blue Tetrazolium method. The less phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities were observed in Averrhoa carambola Linn as compared to Averrhoa bilmbi Linn. fruits. The results obtained in the present study indicate that aqueous fruit extracts of Averrhoa bilmbi Linn. and Averrhoa carambola Linn. are a potential source of natural antioxidants. Further investigations are needed to verify this antioxidant effect in vivo.

 

Key words :Averrhoa bilmbi Linn., Averrhoa carambola Linn., in vitro Antioxidant activity, HPTLC..

 

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AJES