AJES
Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences
 
 
AJES

 

 


VOLUME 21: ISSUE 2

CONTENTS YEAR 2007

Click on the linked title to view the paper  

* corresponding author

Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 179-190

Preparing to Monitor for Sustainable Use of the Planet

John Cairns, Jr.
Department of Biological Sciences,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA

Abstract : Monitoring humankind's activities is common, for example, intensive care patients in hospitals, pharmaceuticals, food supplies, industrial processes, and economic health. Basically, monitoring is used to confirm that previously established quality control conditions are being met. If they are not, remedial measures are taken promptly. Monitoring for sustainable use of the planet will be orders of magnitude more complex than the systems just mentioned, but the principle remains the same - a feedback-loop providing information about the system of concern is essential to verify that the system is functioning within acceptable limits. The absence of a sound monitoring system significantly increases the probability of unpleasant surprises. Since humankind must live sustainably for at least several generations to increase confidence that its practices are sustainable, the development time for the monitoring system will be extensive. Choosing the attributes to be monitored will be challenging, and the synthesis and integration of such diverse information will require much skill, especially in communication. However, the computer age makes coping with vast amounts of diverse information possible for the first time in human history. Paying attention to seemingly inconsequential components of sustainability, such as individual commitment, has merit.

Keywords : Sustainability monitoring, Resource wars, Environmental quality control, Information feedback loops, Biospheric life support system.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 191-204

Phantom Land and Ghost Slaves : Humankind's Addiction to Fossil Energy

John Cairns, Jr.
Department of Biological Sciences,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA

Abstract : Humankind uses vast amounts of fossil energy accumulated millions of years ago. The rate of use is many orders of magnitude greater than the replacement rate. Peak oil is the most immediate problem, and replacing this rate of energy use with biofuels is problematic. Coal is an alternative but produces more severe environment problems than petroleum and is less suitable for some forms of transportation such as airplanes. Nuclear energy does not produce greenhouse gases, but does generate troublesome waste disposal problems (e.g., one-million-year storage for some components). Solar and wind power are proven alternatives, but are not likely to generate sufficient energy to replace the petroleum no longer available. The prudent course of action, then, is reduced energy consumption per capita. As the Marks et al. (2006) report illustrates, high energy and material goods consumption is not highly correlated with happiness (i.e., satisfaction). Even if high consumption were related to happiness, continued extremely high energy consumption would probably not be justified. The approximately 100-200 years of the petroleum era are a brief, aberrant period of human history, and breaking this addiction will be painful, but not fatal.

Keywords : Peak oil, Petroleum era, Reduced energy consumption, Carrying capacity, Environmental refugees, Energy return on investment.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 205-214

Integrating Information from Different Levels of Biological Organization - What Then ?

John Cairns, Jr.
Department of Biological Sciences,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA

Abstract : Global ecological problems as well as regional problems require information from a variety of levels of biological organization from single species to ecosystems. Both scientists and decision makers benefit from synthesis of this information, especially when coupled with chemical/physical information. Synthesized information is also more easily communicated to the general public, especially if the minutiae so fascinating to specialists are avoided. However, neither integration nor synthesis should be an afterthought, but should be incorporated into the original project design. A continual flow of information should be maintained during the data gathering stage so that midcourse corrections can be made when significant interactions are discovered. However, if the scientific information conflicts with political ideology, it should not be rejected.

Keywords : Synthesizing information, Global data management, Information flow, Data connections, Levels of biological organization, Global commons.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 215-226

Risk Analysis of Landfill Gas Emissions: A Report on Mid Auchencarroch Project

Telemachus C. Koliopoulos1 and Georgia Koliopoulou2
1. Environmental Consultancy, Centre for Environmental Management Research,
University of Strathclyde, Greece.
2. Department of Experimental Physiology, Medical School,
University of Athens, Greece.

Abstract : A risk assessment base of landfill gas migration is presented in order to avoid the associated risks for any receptors next to landfill boundaries. Simulation and quantitative analysis of landfill gas emissions based on the field data of Mid Auchencarroch experimental landfill project are studied in four different cells. The aim of the experimental results presented here is to simulate the effects of landfill management techniques on produced landfill gas emissions, with the objective of minimizing any risks and associated environmental impacts protecting public health. Useful conclusions of the analysis presented are made to minimize the risks associated with landfill emissions and to protect flora, fauna, buildings and the architectural environment.

Keywords : Risk analysis, Waste biodegradation, Solid waste management, Landfill gas, Environmental Impact Assessment, Numerical modeling, Spatial analysis, Public health.
 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 227-232

Application of CT-Scan in Evaluation of Transportation of Root Canal during Endodontic Retreatment

Nazari Sh.*1, Samavat H.2, Mirmotalebi F.3 and Shahriari Sh.1
1 Endodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Hamedan Universty of Medial Seiences, Hamedan, IRAN.
2 Department of Medial Physics, Hamedan University of Medial Science, Hamedan, IRAN
3 Restorative Density Department, Faulty of Density, Hamedan, IRAN

Abstract : Non surgical endodentic re-treatment is a way to correct the factors responsible for the failure of previous endodontic therapy. New Rotary Ni-Ti instruments have been shown to prepare moderate to severely curved root canals with efficient shaping and minimum straightening of the root canal. The rotary NiTi ProFile maintained the original curvature significantly better than hand stainless steel Flex-R.

Keywords : Endodontic re-treatment, Apical transportation, Dental Instruments.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 233-237

Response Function of a 33 in. NaI Scintillation Detector in the range of 0.081 to 4.438 MeV

Hashem Miri Hakimabad, Hamed Panjeh* and Alireza Vejdani-Noghreiyan
Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad,
Mashhad, Iran & FUM Radiation Detection And Measurement Laboratory,
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

Abstract : Response functions of a 33 in. NaI detector, which is mainly used in PGNAA applications, have been calculated by using MCNP-4C code. Calculated results are compared with measured data by using standard  g-ray sources to check their accuracy. g-rays from radioisotope sources were used in the range from 0.081 to 4.438 MeV for this determination. Through the precise modeling of the detector structure, the agreement between both results has been improved.

Keywords : FWHM; GEB; NaI (Tl); MCNP code; Monte Carlo simulation; Nonlinear response; Response function; PGNAA

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 239-248

Effects of a-Tocopherol on Liver Biochemistry of a
Effects Endosulfan Intoxicated Mice: A Preliminary Study

Najma Arshad1*, Gulnaz Shabbir1, Shahla Aleem1 and Muhammad Arshad2
1. Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab,
Lahore, Pakistan.
2. Department of Zoology, Government College University,
Lahore, Pakistan.

Abstract : The present study was designed to evaluate the protective role of a-tocopherol (vit.E) against the toxic effects of chlorinated insecticide endosulfan. Forty male albino mice were used as mammalian model in this study. Animals were divided into 4 groups (ten animals each) on the basis of Vitamin-E treatment and endosulfan exposure, Vitamin treatment was started 15 days prior to 1st exposure to endosulfan. Animals were exposed to endosulfan @ 5 mg/kg body weight by intramuscular route and vitamin-E @ 80 mg/kg body weight, was administered by forced drinking. Animals were sacrificed after 15 and 30 days of first exposure to endosulfan and the role of Vitamin-E in reducing Endosulfan induced toxicity was evaluated by using liver tissue biochemistry. Comparisons were made with respective control groups.

A significant inhibition was found in (1) Alkaline phosphatase in both vitamin non-treated and vitamin treated exposed groups at 30 days, (2) protein, and body weight in only vitamin non-treated exposed groups after 15 and 30 days. In contrast a significant elevation was observed in (1) GOT and RNA at 15 and 30 days and (2) LDH at 30 days in both vitamin non-treated and vitamin treated exposed groups. The comparison was also made between vitamin treated and non treated exposed groups, it showed a pronounced elevation in, LDH (15 & 30 days), RNA (15 days) , DNA & GOT (30 days) in vitamin non treated exposed group. It can be concluded from present study that Endosulfan alters various biochemical parameters (AP, GOT, LDH, RNA and protein) and a-tocopherol may play a protective role in reducing toxicity of endosulfan.

Key words : a-tocopherol, Liver Biochemistry, Endosulfan Intoxicated Mice

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 249-258

Gamma Shielding Design Studies on 252Cf and 241Am-Be Neutron Sources

Hashem Miri-Hakimabad, Alireza Vejdani Noghreiyan and Hamed Panjeh
Physics Department, Faculty of Science,
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad,
Mashhad, Iran

Abstract : The 252Cf radioisotope and 241Am-Be are intense neutron emitters that are readily encapsulated in compact, portable, sealed sources. They have wide range of applications in laboratories, industries and medicines, because of their high flux and reliable neutron spectrum. They are cost-effective neutron sources for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA). PGNAA method can be used in medicine for neutron radiography and body chemical composition analysis. 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources generate not only neutrons, but also emit high-energy that are useless when using PGNAA method. Also the sample in medical treatments is a human body that is forced to be under the harmful bombardments of undesirable gamma-rays. In addition accumulations of these high-rate gamma-rays in the detector volume eventuate simultaneous pulses that can be piled up and distort spectra in the region of interest (ROI). All of these restrictions forced us to attenuate these gamma-rays in a practical way without being concerned about losing the neutron flux or significant undesirable alteration in the neutron spectrum. Gamma-rays contribute 68% of the total activity from a 252Cf fission neutron source and 37.5% from a 241Am-Be. To reduce these gamma-ray components, spherical shields of variable radius, made of Pb, Bi and Hg separately, were considered that enclosing neutron source. Gamma-ray shielding effects and optimum radius of spherical shield and the proper material have been investigated and compared with the unfiltered case, bare source, by Monte Carlo simulation, using MCNP 4C code.

Key words : Gamma shielding, Neutron sources, MCNP, 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 259-295

Use of Certain Naturally Ocurring Herbal Grain Protectants against Sitophilus oryzae Linn. (Coleoptera :Curculionidae)

Sushil Kumar, Mamta Bhadauria, A.K.S. Chauhan and B.S. Chandel*
Deptt. of Zoology, Narain College, Shikohabad, India
*Deptt. of Zoology, D.B.S. College, Kanpur.,India

Abstract : Effect on life process of S. oryzae was observed in grains treated with various grain protectants. All grain protectants were found to be significantly superior in affecting the life process of the pest over untreated check, the oil of A. indica (18.00 eggs) was found to be most effective in reducing the number of egg laid by weevil which was followed by A. indica powder, M. azedarach and M. dioica being 21.00, 24.67 and 31.00 eggs, respectively. The incubation period was non significant in different grain protectants which varied from 6.48 to 8.95 days. However, it was 6.48 days in M. azedarach signify the minimum larval period was in the treatment C. nucifera (19.30days), significantly highest larval period (26.50 days) was recorded on grains treated with A. indica powder. There was no significant variation in pupal period of the pest and it ranged from 12.54 to 13.94 days in different treatments. The F1 population of the pest ranged from 3.33 to 31.00 adults in different grain protectants, while it was 76.33 adults in untreated check. The less number of weevils were found in grains treated with A. indica oil. The wheat grains treated with different grains protectants the grain damage by S. oryzae was maximum in grains treated with C. nucifera (39.39 percent) and minimum (4.65 percent) in A. indica oil. The loss in weight of the wheat grains in different grain protectants was significantly less, which ranged from 1.95 to 23.02 percent in comparison of untreated check ( 48.63 percent ).

Keywords : Sitophilus oryzae, Grain protectants, Azadirachta indica, Momordica dioica, Melia azedarach, Brassica juncea

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 267-272

Antimicrobial Activity of Bioactive Metabolites Isolated from Selected Medicinal Plants

Vandana Mathur, Sharad Vats, Megha Jain, Jaya Bhojak and Raka Kamal*
Laboratory of Medicinal Plants Biotechnology,
Department of Botany & Biotechnology,
University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India

Abstract : The rotenoids and flavonoids isolated from Derris indica (L) Benette, ethanolic extract of root of Withania somnifera (L) Dunal and fruits of Terminalia belerica Roxb were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae) and two fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium tubesulum) using Filter Paper Disc Method. The maximum activity against E.coli was recorded in the rotenoid fraction from pods and subsequently from flavonoids extracts of D. indica (IZ; 5 and 4 mm, respectively), which was at par with ethanolic extract of root of W. somnifera (4 mm). Against the E. cloacae rotenoids from pods and stem of D. indica gave significant IZ (3 mm). In case of A. flavus significant antifungal activity was found in flavonoids and rotenoids (stem and leaves) isolates of D. indica (6 mm), which was at par with the rotenoids from pods of D. indica and ethanolic fraction of fruits of T. belerica against P. tubesulum. The present study confirms the antimicrobial activity of isolated rotenoids and flavonoids for the first time.

Keywords : Antimicrobial Activity, Withania somnifera (L), Derris indica, Rotenoids and Flavonoids

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 273-278

Triazoles : Their Effects on Net Photosynthetic Rate, Transpiration Rate and Stomatal Resistance in Setaria italica Plants grown in vivo

Rhadha Bisht, Premlata Singariya, Navish Mathur and S.P.Bohra
Stress Physiology Laboratory,
Depatment of Botany,
J.N. Vyas University, Jodhpur -342005, India.

Abstract : The effects of different concentration of triazoles [Triademefon (TDM) and Paclobutrazol (PBZ)] on net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal resistance were studied in Setaria italica plants grown under field conditions. Net photosynthetic rates (Pn), transpiration rates (Tr) and stomatal resistances (Sr) were recorded after second and fifth day of third treatment. Plants treated with triadimefon (5 and 10mg/liter) and paclabutrazol (5 and 20 mg/liter). Highest Pn was observed in TDM (5mg/liter) whereas lowest Pn in PBZ (5mg/liter) after second and fifth day. Tr increased with increasing concentrations of both treatments. After second treatment, Sr increased with higher concentration of TDM and PBZ whereas after fifth day Sr enhanced with increasing concentration of TDM but decreased with of PBZ.

Keywords : Triazoles, Triadimefon, Paclobutrazole, Net photosynthetic rate, Transpiration rate, and Stomatal resistance.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 279-282

Isolation and Identification of Trigonelline from the Tissue Culture of Allium sativum Linn.

Kapil Kumar Saxena and Shikha Roy
Department of Botany,
University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India

Abstract : Trigonelline is an important bioactive compound of plants. Tissue culture technique is being used for producing bioactive compounds. The Trigonelline was extracted the in vitro raised callus of A. sativum. The amount of Trigonelline was higher in 8 weeks old callus (0.86 mg/g d.w.). The maximum growth index of A. sativum (7.90) was observed in eight weeks old callus tissue. Present study deals with the isolation and identification of Trigonelline of A. sativm.

Key words : Trigonelline, Isolation, Tissue culture, Allium sativum.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 283-290

Ethnomedicinal Plants used in Skin Diseases by some Indo-Mongoloid Communities of Assam

Jitu Buragohain1* and B. K. Konwar2
1. Department of Botany, Namrup College,
Parbatpur-786 623, Dist. Dibrugarh, Assam
2. Department of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology,
Tezpur University, Napaam-784 028, Dist. Sonitpur, Assam

Abstract : An ethnobotanical study was carried out among five Indo-Mongoloid communities largely distributed in Upper Assam, India to document plants used in various skin diseases. A total of 68 plant species belonging to 40 families were recorded. Majority of the plant species described in the present paper was used in the treatment of abscesses, septic ulcers, scabies, ringworm, allergy and pimples. Most of the herbal remedies were taken externally in the form of paste. All these plants and plant parts need to be evaluated through phyto and pharmaco-chemical investigations to discover their potentiality as drugs. There is an urgent need to explore and document the ethnomedicinal plants used by the tribal and other communities of Assam before such valuable knowledge vanishes.

Keywords : Assam, Ethnobotanical study, Indo-Mongoloid communities, Skin diseases.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 291-296

Effects of Enzyme Inducers in Therapeutic Efficacy of Rosiglitazone: An Antidiabetic Drug in Albino Rats

Anand Chaurasia1*, P.K. Karar2, A.S. Mann1 and M.D. Kharya1
1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Dr. H.S. Gour University, Sagar (M.P.) 470 003; India
2 Department of Pharmacy,
Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar (TN) 608 002; India

Abstract : The effect of enzyme inducers on therapeutic efficacy of Rosiglitazone (an antidiabetic drug) was evaluated by using alloxan induced diabetic rats. The results exhibit the combined adminstration of enzyme inducers like rifampicin, phenobarbitone and phenytoin with Rosiglitazone was contraindicated. The purpose of the study reveals that if Rosiglitazone drug combined with said enzyme inducers then therapeutic efficacy of Rosiglitazone being altered. Because enzyme inducers induced cytochrome P450 by enhancing the rate of its synthesis and/or reducing the rate of degradation. Therefore, combined administration of enzyme inducers with Rosiglitazone is not advisable. Since the hypoglycemic effect of the drug is reduced. The results exhibit that combined administration of enzyme inducers with Rosiglitazone was contraindicated.

Keywords : Rosiglitazone, Alloxan, Phenytoin, Rifampicin, Phenobarbitone

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 297-310

Radioprotective Effect of Fruit Extract of Grewia asiatica in Swiss Albino Mice Against Lethal-irradiation. g Dose of

Muktika Ahaskar, K.V. Sharma, Smita Singh and Rashmi Sisodia
Radiation Biology Laboratory
Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan,
Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302004

Abstract : The radioprotective efficacy of methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (Phalsa) fruit (GAE) against whole body gamma radiation was studied in Swiss albino mice. After drug toxicity test, the oral administration of 700 mg//kg body weight /day of GAE for 15 consecutive days before exposure to 10 Gy of -radiation was found to afford maximum protection as evidenced by the highest number of survivors after 30 days post irradiation. At this dose level GAE was found to be effective against different levels of radiation doses. LD50/30 value of 6.21 for irradiation alone (control) and 9.53 for Grewia asiatica + irradiation group (experimental) was obtained; a dose reduction factor (DRF) 1.53 was calculated. The mice of experimental group exhibited significant modulation of radiation- induced decreases of reduced glutathione (GSH) and radiation- induced increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the whole brain and liver at 24 hours after radiation exposure.

Keywords : Radioprotection, Grewia asiatica, LD50/30, LPO, GSH, Gamma radiation, Survival, Toxicity.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 311-316

Physico-chemical and Bacteriological Studies of Daphrin Hostipal Discharge at Sagar, Madhaya Pradesh

K. Sahu*, A. Mehta, Sangeeta Singh and Shruti Shukla
Microbiology Laboratory,
Department of Botany,
Faculty of Life Sciences,
Dr. H. S. Gour University, Sagar (M.P.) 470 003

Abstract : Present investigations were carried out from Daphrin hospital discharge. Temperature is one of the most important ecological factor which play significant role on the earth. Present paper reports a study on water quality. In the physico-chemical parameters such as pH ranged from 7.0 to 9.0, temperature (C) ranged from 18.0 to 27.1, alkalinity (mgL-1) varied from 65 to 151.7; free carbon dioxide (mgL-1) ranged from 5.6 to 52.4; BOD (mgL-1) from 13.8 to 22.1; chloride value (mgL-1) ranged from 28.0 to 191.7; dissolved oxygen (mgL-1) varied form 1.3 to 6.5; nitrate (mgL-1) varied from 0.1 to 12.1 and phosphate (mgL-1) values varied from 0.1 to 0.4. Most of the physico-chemical variables showed monthly variation. High values of total alkalinity, chloride, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand of effluents of Daphrin hospital discharge mixing in the lake water indicates the high pollution status of the lake. High degree of pollution can be correlated with the presence of high heterotrophic bacterial density, thus indicating the tropic status and organic strength of the water body.

Keywords : Sagar lake, Daphrin hospital, Physico-chemical parameters, Bacteriological studies.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 317-323

Rotenoids from Parkinsonia aculeata L and their in vitro Amoebicidal Activity

Raka Kamal and Naina Mathur
Laboratory of Medicinal Plants Biotechnology,
Department of Botany,
University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004, Rajasthan, India.

Abstract : Rotenoids the group of naturally occurring insecticidal substances, ketonic in nature were analysed from various plant parts of Parkinsonia aculeata L. Three rotenoids viz rotenone, elliptone and deguelin were identified using TLC, GLC, mp, mmp, IR, and UV studies, which were comparable to that of the their respective standard compounds. In different part of the plant the rotenoid recovery has been observed as per the order: root> stem>leaves> pods>seeds, being maximum in the root and minimum in seed. The different doses (1000 μgmL-1 , 500 μgmL-1, 250 μgmL-1 , 125 μgmL-1 , 62 μgmL-1 , 31 μgmL-1) of isolated rotenoids from roots were subjected to in vitro antiamoebic activity along with standard rotenone and derris resin for different time intervals (24h 48h 72h). The dose level 500μg/ml L 1 was found most active as compared to 250 μg/ml L 1 of standards. However, the standard antiamoebic drug metroindazole was effective at 8 μg/ml dose.

Keywords : Rotenoids, Parkinsonia aculeata, Entamoeba hystolytica, amoebicidal]

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 325-328

Effect of Lithium chloride on the Endocrine Pancreas of Domestic Pigeon (Columba livia)

Subho Ghosh
Department of Zoology, Midnapore College,
Midnapore, Dist. Paschim Medinipur,
West Bengal, PIN : 721 101, India.

Abstract : Though there are numerous antis - psychotic drugs, currently Lithium salts are therapeutically used for the treatment of many depressive illnesses in psychiatry. Lithium acts through the hypothalamic pathway, but it also produces side effects on the peripheral endocrine glands. Our knowledge is still limited regarding the latter aspect, so mechanism of lithium action through the extra - hypothalamic pathway is, still in some way, unexplored and must be elucidated for a better insight.

The present investigation deals with the action of lithium chloride (LiCl) on the endocrine pancreas, i.e. Islets of Langerhans regarding histological and certain biochemical parameters. Our study revealed that, high dosage of LiCl treatment initiates high mobilization of alpha cell granules,- indicating a storage of the hormone glucagon. It also increased the blood glucose and slightly depleted the liver glycogen of the pigeons. The probable mechanism behind these results was briefly discussed.

Key words : Lithium chloride, Islets of Langerhans, Domestic pigeon

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 329-336

Quantification of Primary Metabolites of Balanites aegyptiaca L.

Rekha Vijayvergia and Priyanka Vijay*
Department of Botany,
University of Rajasthan
Jaipur-302004; India

Abstract : Pharmacological studies are contributing to the research for new natural products with one or other biological activities because of its multidisciplinary nature. In the present investigation attempt has been made to investigate the primary metabolites of Balanites aegyptiaca L., B. aegyptiaca L. is found to contain protein, lipids, starch, phenol, carbohydrate in different parts of plants viz. root, stem and leaf. Soluble sugar in leaves, protein, lipid and phenol in root starch in stem were noted with high concentrations. The results are suggestive of primary bioactive compounds of commercial importance and may result in great interest in plants pharmaceuticals.

Keywords : Pharmacological, Multidisciplinary, Protein, Phenols, Antibiotics, Pharmaceuticals.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 337-340

Distribution of Serological and Biochemical Markers in the Keer Tribe of Madhya Pradesh

Deepak Bharti1, Ruchira Chaudhary1, S.M.S. Chahal2 and Gunjan Sharma1
1. Dept. of Zoology, Govt. M.V.M. Bhopal-462014 (M.P.), India
2. Dept. of Human Biology, Punjabi University, Patiala, India

Abstract : The Present genetic study provides baseline data on the Keer tribe inhabiting Sehore district of Madhya Pradesh. A total of 131 blood samples were collected and typed for variabilities of the A1 A2 BO and Rh (D) blood groups and isozymes of Adenosine Deaminase (ADA), Phosphoglucomutase locus1( PGM1), Esterase D ( ESD) and Acid Phophatase locus 1(ACP1) as well as Haemoglobin (HB). The Chi square test for goodness of fit revealed no significant deviation between the observed and expected numbers in any of the seven genetic markers, suggesting that the tribe is in genetic equilibrium. The present study among the Keer shows a high incidence of the B allele and low of the A1 allele with absence of the A2 allele as well as a low d (Rh negative allele) frequency in serological markers. In biochemical traits, the frequency of the PGM1*2, was recorded rather low and no variant of blood protein HB was found. Thus, the present study helped in genetically characterizing the Keer tribe of Madhya Pradesh.

Keywords : Enzyme Polymorphism, Blood groups, Keer tribe, Madhya Pradesh.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 341-352

Power Productivity Enhancement and Statistical Analysis Using Hybrid System of Solar, Wind and Biomass

Prashant Baredar1*, V. K. Sethi2 & Mukesh Pandey2
1. Laxmi Narain College of Technology, Bhopal, India
2. University Institute of Technology
R.G.P.V., Bhopal, India

Abstract : Hybrid system of Solar and Wind can work as a highly efficient and Green Power technology for power generation. After adequate demonstration world wide, is now poised to compete with the conventional power generation technologies and is the 21st century technology to meet the stringent environmental regulations more efficiently and economically than other power generation technique.
For reliable supply of power in remote locations or inaccessible rural areas it will be possible and sometimes necessary to design and setup Hybrid system, which combines the advantages of two or more different technologies, to take care of base load requirements. An integrated Hybrid System Solar, Wind and Biomass would ensure that power supply could be maintained at an optimum level during adverse condition like cloudy days (for PV system), low wind conditions (for wind electric generators) and non-availability of Biomass in rainy season.

Key words: Power Productivity, Hybrid System, Solar, Wind, Biomass

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 353-357

Interaction of Trichoderma harzianum with Fusarium solani During its Pathogenesis and the Associated Resistance of the Host

M.R. Chakraborty and N.C. Chatterjee
Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory,
Department of Botany, The University of Burdwan,
Burdwan - 713104, West Bengal; India

Abstract : Changes in the activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in healthy and infected plants of Solanum melongena Linn., caused by Fusarium solani (Martius) Appel and Wollenweber were assayed under different periods. The enzymes activities appeared to be increased with increase in the period of infection and reached a maximum level at the end of an incubation period, which is directly correlated with the resistance of the plant against infection. It was noticed that the biocontrol agent, Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai) significantly interacts with the activities of phenol oxidizing enzymes of the pathogen. The reduction in the activities of phenol oxidizing enzymes after 21st day incubation was recorded when plants treated with both pathogen and antagonist. Such interrelationship between these two enzymes plays a key role to stimulate the defense mechanism of the host plant against infection.

Keywords : Solanum melongena, Fusarium solani, Trichoderma harzianum, Wilt, Peroxidase, Polyphenol oxidase, Resistance

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 359-364

Sodium Fluoride Toxicity on Reproductive Organs of Female Albino Rats

J.D. Sharma, Mamta Solanki and Deepmala Solanki
Reproductive Physiology and Environment Toxicology Laboratory,
Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan,
Jaipur-302004, India

Abstract : Fluorosis is a dreaded disease caused due to high fluoride (>1.5 ppm) in drinking water. In the present study normal cyclic female rats (Rattus norvegicus), weighing between 150- 200 gm, were kept on sodium fluoride (6ppm) water for 15 and 30 days. The results revealed that the fluoride water exposure to female rats caused irregular estrus cycle, reduced fertility rate, number of litters, weights of reproductive organs ( ovary, uterus, vagina) and adrenal gland, concentration of protein (ovary, uterus, adrenal and liver), ascorbic acid (adrenal), enzyme activity of acid phosphatase (ovary and uterus), serum enzyme activity of acid phosphatase, where as alkaline phosphatase, SGOT, SGPT in serum, cholesterol (ovary, uterus, adrenal), glycogen (ovary, uterus, liver) and ascorbic acid content of ovary and uterus increased significantly as compared to control value. However haematological parameters were found to be within normal range. The data suggests that sodium fluoride water exposure for 15 and 30 days caused adverse effect on reproductive organs, leading to reduced fertility and number of litter in female albino rats.

Keywords : Sodium Fluoride, Ovary, Uterus, Fertility, and Fluoride Toxicity

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 365-375

Simulating Biological Neural Network Structure in Computers with Help of MATLAB for Handwriting Recognition Tasks

V.S. Dhaka and M.P. Singh*
Department of Computer Science
ICIS, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University,
Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India

Abstract : This report presented here describes the basic human neural structure and its artificial competent. The human neurological structure is analyzed in detail to get the techniques of its learning and determination of results. The processing of this structure is tried to simulate using a feed-forward artificial neural network in which the error term is propagated to back -layer for corrections. This artificial neural network is designed and trained for recognition of 500 handwritten letters. The co-relation between the artificial neural network and biological natural neural network is also investigated and explained.

Keywords : Biological and Artificial Neural Network, Character Recognition, Feed forward Neural Network, Segmentation, Back propagation.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 377-383

Electrochemical Reduction of m-nitrotoluene at Glassy Carbon and Stainless Steel Electrode at Different pH

Meenu Vijay, Bhagwan Sahay, Manu Gupta, I. K. Sharma and P. S. Verma*
Department of Chemistry,
University of Rajasthan,
Jaipur, Rajasthan (India)

Abstract : The voltammograms of m-nitrotoluene (aqueous-methanol solution) in BR buffer at different pH 4.0, 7.0, 9.0 exhibits the one reduction peak; effect of scan rate on cathodic peak potential indicates that these reactions are irreversible. Constant current electrolysis in acidic and basic media of m-nitrotoluene gives m-toluidine and 3,3’ dimethyl azo benzene respectively as a major products which were confirmed by TLC, NMR, IR spectrum analyses.

Keywords : Electrochemical Reduction, m-nitro toluene SS cathode, Cyclic Voltammetry and Constant Current Electrolysis.

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Effect of Captan and Carbendazim Fungicides on Nodulation and Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean

Charanjit Kaur1, P. Maini2 and N.P. Shukla3
1 Science Faculty, Sri Satya Sai College for Women, Bhopal, India
2 Institute of Excellence in Higher Education, Kolar Road, Bhopal, India
3 Madhya Pradesh Council of Science and Technology, Bhopal, India

Abstract : Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed treatments are recognized as useful in reducing losses from seed borne pathogens and seedling damping off agents. The seed treatment with fungicide is essential in the improved technology for increasing crop production. In the present investigation two seed protectant fungicides captan and carbendazim are used. Effect of fungicides on growth of Rhizobium japonicum has been studied. Soybean seeds of two varieties PK-472 and JS-72-44 were treated with the said fungicides. Observations are taken after 45 days. Results reveal that carbendazim is toxic to the nodule bacterium. Therefore, seed treatment with captan should be followed as a routine.

Keywords : Captan, Carbendazim Fungicides, Nodulation, Biological Nitrogen, Soybean

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 385-388

Voltammetric Behaviour of o-nitro aniline in Aqueous Methanol Medium at Various Electrodes

Meenu Vijay, Geeta Wadhvani, Hemlata Agarwal, I.K.Sharma and P.S.Verma*
Department of Chemistry,
University of Rajasthan,
Jaipur - 302004

Abstract : The voltammograms of o-nitroaniline (aqueous-methanol solution) in BR buffer at different pH e.g. 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0 exhibits the one reduction peak corresponding to 4e- change in acidic (pH=4.0) and 5 e- change in neutral (pH 7.0) and basic (pH 9.0) media. Constant current electrolysis in acidic and basic media of o-nitroaniline gives o-phenylenediamine and 2,2' diaminoazo benzene respectively which were confirmed by TLC, NMR and IR spectrum.

Keywords : Electrochemical Reduction o-nitroaniline SS cathode, Cyclic Voltammetry and Constant Current Electrolysis.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 389-393

Unsteady Two-Dimensional Free-convective Flow of a Viscous Incompressible Fluid Through a Rotating porous Medium Bounded by a Vertical Surface

Navin Kumar
Department of Mathematics, University of Rajasthan
Jaipur- 302 004, Rajasthan (India)

Abstract : Unsteady two-dimensional free-convective flow of a viscous incompressible fluid through a rotating porous medium bounded by a vertical surface is investigated. The porous medium is rotating with uniform angular velocity. The velocity and temperature distributions are derived by using complex function and their profiles for various values of physical parameters are shown through graphs. The coefficient of skin-friction and the rate of heat transfer in terms of Nusselt number at the vertical surface are derived, discussed and their numerical values for various values of physical parameters are presented through table.

Keywords : Unsteady flow, free-convective flow, complex function, skin-friction, Nusselt number

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 395-406

Use of Y - Chromosome in Sexual Assault by Y-Plex tm6 Amplification Kit and 310 Genetic Analyzer

Sarabjeet Singh*, Ruchira Chaudhary
Department of Zoology,
Govt. M.V.M., Bhopal-462042, M.P., India

Abstract : Currently, post vasectomized azoospermic semen sample were analyzed for short tandem repeat (STR) on the Y- Chromosome by using 310 Genetic Analyzer. It has been observed a wide variation was attributed to the number of epithelial or white blood cells that are present in these azoospermic sample. DNA Profile of the vasectomized males was obtained for all six Y- STR Loci and by amplification kit. The method developed in this study demonstrate that Y- STR is a sensitive method for the identification of the presence of male epithelial cell in the post coital vagina

Keywords : Forensic science, Y- Chromosome, Short Tandem repeat, Y-STR, Y-Plextm6

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 407-409

Cardiologist's Hand Dose Measurements in Interventional Radiology

S. Mehdizadeh1, M. A. Owrangi2, Sh. Derakhshan3
1. Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2. Department of Nuclear Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
3. Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract : An evaluation was performed to determine the distribution of the radiation dose received by vascular/interventional radiologists, henceforth called cardiologists, to their hands and arms during interventional radiology procedure. Measurements of the radiation dose to the hand were conducted using thermoluminescent dosimeters for individual interventional radiology cases to determine the distribution of dose to the hands and forearms. Measurements were made on a finger, the palm, wrist and the elbow of both hands and arms. Results suggested that a non-uniformity of dose with the maximum dose being measured on the hypothenar and elbow of both hands. The left hand receives a higher dose than the right hand due to positioning of the radiologist with respect to the patient. Due to variable hand positions during clinical examinations, fluoroscopy time was not found to be a good indicator of hand dose.

Keywords : Hand dose, Exposure, Radiation, X-rays,

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 411-414

Comparison of Different Invasive Type of Refractive Anomalies Operation

Saeed Shanehsazzadeh1, Ali Salehi2 and Alireza Mehri3
1. Student of Medical Physics, Department of Biomedical Physics and Engineering,
Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
2. Associated professor of University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.
3. Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Physics and Engineering,
Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Abstract : The methods of ammetropia of the human eye correction are divided in to invasive and non invasive methods. Each method has its own merits and drawbacks. Each method has it limitations due to type of compensation; therefore it is difficult to make a straight forward decision. In this study is tried to compare the results of methods to find out their predictability, UCVA, safety and stability. In this work the result data of 24012 patient of different type of operation were investigated. In this work the data are gathered from different papers from 1980 till now. The data are classified on the base of the type of operation and the degree of ammetropia which includes myopia, hypermetropia, and presbyopia. Gathered data are analyzed with Chi-square measure. This study shows that for the patients with hypermetropia less than 3.5 diopter the Conductive Keratoplasty (CK) and Laser Thermal Keratoplasty (LTK) have best correction results respectively. Then the results of Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) and Laser SubEpithelial Keratomileusis (LASEK) give same results after CK and LTK. For all range of myopia the LASEK gave the best result. The Laser in Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) gave proper performance in moderate and higher myopia refractive anomalies. But the PRK had given better performance in low myopia refractive anomalies.

Keywords : LASIK, LASEK, PRK, LTK, CK, DTK, RK

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 415-428

Water Quality Improvement through Macrophytes: A Case Study

Sangeeta Dhote* and Savita Dixit
Department. of Applied Chemistry,
Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal (M.P), India

Abstract : Macrophytes play important roles in balancing lake ecosystem. They have capacity to improve the water quality by absorbing nutrients with their effective root system. The objective of the study is to evaluate the usefulness of different macrophytic species (Biofilters) in reducing the nutrient content of the water i.e. to reduce the pollution level of water. The paper is the outcome of ex-situ experiments conducted on samples collected from Shahpura Lake, Bhopal. Two macrophyteic Species Eicchornia crassipes and Hydrilla verticillata. Results indicates that both the macrophytes are capable in improving water quality by reducing nutrient concentration. Purification of water through macrophytes is a good example of purification of water with natural means.

Keywords : Macrophytes, Lake Ecosystem, Eicchornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticella

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 429-432

Eco-Friendly Procedure for the Reduction of o -Hydroxy Acetophenone

Mohan Lal Meena, Geeta Wadhvani, Vijay Chhimpa, Nidhi Jain and I.K. Sharma*
Department of Chemistry,
University of Rajasthan,
Jaipur-302004

Abstract : The microbial catalyst reduction of o-amino acetophenone was carried out with free Beaker's yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) as well as immobilized Beaker's yeast in alcoholic medium. The reduction product was isolated and purified by basis of its spectral analysis.

Keywords : Baker's yeast (BY) Immobilized Baker's yeast (ImBY) microbial catalysied reduction, carbonyl compounds.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 433-436

Intra and Interspecies Variations among Environmental Klebsiella Isolates

Anjana Sharma*, Susheel Kumar Singh and Sunita Patra
Bacteriology Laboratory,
Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Biological Science,
R.D. University, Jabalpur (M.P.) 482001, India

Abstract : Majority of the study of Klebsiella is restricted to clinical isolates and its occurrence in fresh water environment is sporadically reported. Biochemical and molecular diversity of 40 Klebsiella isolates, isolated from 180 water samples of river Narmada from eleven stations (Amarkantak to Dahej) during 2005-2006 was assessed by employing Biotyping, SDS-PAGE profiling, Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, and Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA). The Antibiogram analysis suggested that most of the isolates were resistant against Ampicillin, Amoxycillin, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol and Trimethoprim and all isolates were found to be sensitive against Norflaxcin, Cefotaxime and Gentamycin. RAPD and ARDRA prevailed over Biotyping and Protein profiling for identification, and Intra and interspecies variations among environmental isolates of Klebsiella spp.

Keywords : Klebsiella, Fresh water, Antibiogram, SDS-PAGE, Molecular typing.

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007; 437-443

Soil Quality of Irrigated Agricultural Fields in Textile Industrial Area of Panipat City

D.S. Malik and Pawan K. Bharti*
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science,
Gurukula Kangri, University,
Hardwar - 249404

Abstract : Basically, life on earth depends on soil, air and aquatic eco- system directly. Without fertile soil and the microbial fauna that inhabit it, food would not grow, dead things would not decay and nutrients would not be recycled. The proper proportion of all biotic and abiotic components is required for the balance of any ecosystem, while imbalanced constituents may alter the quality of soil ecosystem. Yet the earth's soils are being stripped away, rendered sterile and contaminated with toxic chemicals at a rate that can not be sustained. Due to the increasing industrialization water, air and soil quality may change in many industrial areas like Panipat textile industrial area. Surface water, ground water, sediments and ultimately agricultural soils are polluted by their industrial waste directly or indirectly.

The present work is aimed towards developing base line data for soil quality of agricultural soil irrigated by ground water contaminated by textile industrial effluent and to understand the weathering and geo-chemical processes active in soil environment. Hence the investigation has been undertaken to assess the extent of heavy metal contamination of soil due to irrigation with contaminated ground water affected by textile industrial effluents, on agricultural land. Samples of soil have been analyzed for heavy metals, viz. Mn, Ni, Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Metal transfer factors from ground water to irrigated agricultural soil found significant for Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. Some physico-chemical characteristics of agricultural soil were found altered in comparison to control site.

Keywords : Textile industry, soil quality, agriculture soil, heavy metals accumulation

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