AJES
Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences
 
 
AJES

 

 


VOLUME 20: ISSUE 1

CONTENTS YEAR 2006
 

Click on the linked title to view the paper

 

Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 1-6

 

Ecotoxicology : An Opportunity for the Experimental Sciences Ecological Restoration in an Era of Ecological Disequilibrium

 

John Cairns, Jr.

Department of Biological Sciences,

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,

Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA

 

Abstract :  The current rate of ecological destruction greatly exceeds the rate of ecological repair, a situation that obviously cannot continue indefinitely.  In addition, the rate of biotic impoverishment makes finding suitable species for recolonization extremely difficult.  Furthermore, for the first time in human history, humankind is confronted with two global, ecological problems:  (1) climate change, including global warming, which makes return to antecedent conditions extremely difficult, and (2) acidification of the world’s oceans, which raises the threat of ecological disequilibrium in these vast systems.  The biospheric life support system is probably approaching a number of ecological tipping points, which means the conditions so favorable to humankind may be impaired or even made unfavorable.  Measures could be taken at local, regional, and global levels to reduce these risks, but the time for implementing them is shortened every year.

 

Keywords :   Ecological restoration, Landscape disequilibrium, Biospheric life support system, Climate change, Acidification, Global ecological problems.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 7-16

 

Humankind’s Ultimate Security

 

John Cairns, Jr.

Department of Biological Sciences,

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,

Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA

 

Abstract : While humankind is obsessed with economic growth, terrorism, and unverified rumors of weapons of mass destruction, a much greater threat to both individual and societal security is developing with frightening rapidity—the increasingly probable failure of the biospheric life support system to continue maintaining conditions that have been favorable to humans for 160,000 years. Worst yet, humankind’s unsustainable practices are the primary cause of this threat. An uncharitable person might conclude that humankind is suicidal. After all, why cause global warming, acidification of the planet’s oceans, and drive many of the life forms “sharing” the planet into extinction if humankind does not have a death wish? However, reasons to hope exist. Major changes in human behavior could result in a shift from unsustainable to sustainable practices. To be effective, this shift must be based on an objective analysis of the risks to humankind’s security based on information generated by the experimental sciences. This analysis would be a major, new undertaking for the experimental sciences, but it is necessary to a sustainable future for humankind.

 

Keywords : Economic growth, Societal security, Biospheric life support system, Terrorism, Unsustainable practices, Greenhouse gases.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 17-26

 

Principles of Ageing and the Practice of Anti-ageing Therapies

 

Suresh I. S. Rattan

Laboratory of Cellular Ageing,

Danish Centre for Molecular Gerontology,

Department of Molecular Biology,

University of Aarhus, Gustav Wieds Vej,

DK-8000 Aarhus - C, Denmark.

 

Abstract : After years of generating data describing age-related changes in organisms, organs, tissues, cells and macromolecules, biogerontologists are now able to construct general principles of ageing and explore various possibilities of gerontomodulation. There is significant evidence to show that ageing is characterized by a stochastic accumulation of molecular damage and by a progressive failure of maintenance and repair. Several approaches are being tried and tested to modulate ageing in a wide variety of organisms with the ultimate aim of improving the quality of human life in old age, and prolong human health-span. These approaches include gene therapy, hormonal supplementation, nutritional modulation and intervention by antioxidants and other molecules. A recent approach is that of applying hormesis in ageing research and therapy, which is based on the principle of stimulation of maintenance and repair pathways by repeated exposure to mild stress. Our studies on the beneficial effects of repeated mild heat shock on human cells in culture, and other studies on the anti-ageing and life prolonging effects of proxidants, hypergravity, irradiation, and ethanol on cells and organisms have provided the proof of principle that hormesis as an anti-ageing and gerontomodulatory approach has a promising future.

 

Keywords : Age, Anti-ageing, Homeostasis, Homeodynamics, Repair, Damage, Hormesis, Survival, Longevity

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 27-33

 

The Biopositive Effects of Diagnostic Doses of X-rays on Growth of Phaseolus vulgaris Plant : A Possibility of New Physical Fertilizers

 

Mortazavi SMJ 1, Mehdi-Pour LA 2, Tanavardi S 2, Mohammadi S 2, Kazempour S 2, Fatehi S 2 Behnejad B 2 and H. Mozdarani 3


1.   Medical Physics Dept., School of Medicine,

      Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran

2.   Radiologic Technology Dept., School of Paramedical Sciences,

      Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran

3.   Medical Genetics Department, Tarbiat Modarres University,

      Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract : The aim of this study was to evaluate the bio-effects of low doses of diagnostic X-rays on growth rate of Phaseolus vulgaris (Pinto) plants.


Before cultivation, Phaseolus vulgaris (Pinto) seeds were soaked in tap water for 2 days followed by another 2 days of covering under a wet cloth. Fifteen days after starting cultivation, newly grown plants were irradiated with X-rays. Plants were exposed to a single dose of X-ray (80 kVp, 80 mAs) for 6 days. On day 29, plants were pulled out from the soil. Length of plant stem, length of root, number of leaves and plant weight were measured. The stem length in irradiated and sham-irradiated plants was 296.5113.57 and 223.9615.02 mm, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Although the number of leaves in irradiated plants was higher than that of sham-irradiated plants (7.050.18 and 6.740.19, respectively), the difference was not statistically significant. The stem diameter in irradiated and sham-irradiated plants were 3.520.12 and 3.350.09 mm, respectively, but the difference again was not statistically significant (P<0.001). Plant weight in irradiated samples was less than that of non-irradiated plants, ageing being statistically non-significant. The overall results indicate that diagnostic doses of X-rays can accelerate the growth of plants. The growth enhancement ratio for stem length was 1.33 that is a challenging figure. However, current data seem to be insufficient and further studies are needed to confirm these findings as well as to find out the possible hormetic mechanisms.

 

Keywords : Ionizing Radiation, Diagnostic Radiology, Plant Growth, and Fertilizers

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 35-40

 

Protein Profile Variations in Halophilic Bacteria in Response to Variations in Salt and Temperature

 

Abhishek Vashishtha*, Madan Lowry** and D.P. Jaroli**

*    Department of Microbiology

      Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Applied Sciences, Jaipur, India

**  Department of Zoology

      University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India

 

Abstract : In response to increasing external osmotic strength halophilic bacteria accommodate certain compatible solutes. These are synthesized de novo with the help of inducible enzymes. In this study protein profile expression of halophilic bacteria grown under different stress conditions of salinity and temperature were compared. Sambhar lake (salt lake situated in Jaipur district) was choosen as the site for bacterial isolation. Isolation was achieved at 37 C temperature and 12% salt concentration. Of the eight isolates, a Gram-negative rod shaped bacteria was choosen for the study. It was grown separately at three different salt concentrations viz., 12%, 18%, and 23% at two different incubation temperatures viz., 37 C and   45 C. The bacteria grown under 18% and 23% salt stress were also incubated at an additional high temperature of 55 C. Thus, each of the bacteria was subjected to eight different incubation environments. Denatured protein profiling was done by using SDS-PAGE and profiles were then compared. A novel low molecular weight protein was found to be synthesized by this bacterium when grown at (a) 23% salt and 45 C temperature, and (b) 18% and 23% salt   and 55 C temperature.

 

Keywords: Halophilic bacteria, Protein profiling, Salt and temperature stress, SDS -PAGE.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 41-46

 

Antimicrobial Activity of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. A Plant with Extra-medicinal Value

 

Laxmikant Sharma and Ashwani Kumar

Biotechnology Lab,

Department of Botany

University of Rajasthan

Jaipur, India-302004

 

Abstract : Increasing emergence resistance to the currently available antibiotics has necessitated continued search for new antimicrobial compounds having a novel mechanism of action. Ageratum conyzoides Linn. showed remarkable antagonistic activity against some important fungal species. The maximum zone of inhibition (Iza) was observed in EtOH fraction of flavonoids with fungus Fusarium semitectum. The strongest activity index (AI) was reported in Aspergillus niger.  Besides traditional sources of useful antibiotics a wide spectrum of organisms is being screened in search of useful anti-microbials.

 

Keywords : Antimicrobial, Fungal species, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporium and Fusarium semitectum.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 47-54

 

Histopathological Changes in Rat Gastrocnemius Muscle after Oral and Intraperitoneal Clenbuterol Administration

 

Sushma Sharma and Nikhlesh Thakur

Department of Biosciences,

H. P. University, Summer Hill,

Shimla-171005; India

 

Abstract : b-adrenergic agonists are sympathomimetic substances which mimic normal innervation functions in skeletal muscles. It increases muscle mass in laboratory animals mainly from a selective hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. Histopathological changes in rat gastrocnemius muscle had been investigated under normal and drug induced stress conditions. Rats were divided into three groups i, e. (i) control group (ii) rats given 5mg/ kg body weight/day clenbuterol orally and (iii) rats given same dose of clenbuterol intraperitoneally. The effects of chronic 15 day regular administration of b- adrenoceptor agonist, clenbuterol and withdrawal effect for next 15 days were evaluated in young male (wistar) rats. This chronic treatment revealed maximum hypertrophy of muscle fibres in the sections during 7-15 days. Clumping of nuclei at sub sarcolemmal positions were noticed which was more prominent in the rats that were given drug orally. Degenerative muscle fibres were also seen at some places of muscle sections. Sarcolemmal breakdown of muscle fibres in certain areas was noticed. Degenerative foci were also seen in the centre of two muscle fibres. The muscle cells were returning towards normalcy after 30 days stage. These results were more pronounced when drug was given orally as compared to intraperitoneal administration.

 

Keywords : adrenergic, gastrocnemius, orally, intraperitoneally, adrenoceptor.

 

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 Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 55-68

 

Cisplatin-induced Toxicological Effects in Relation to the Endogenous Tissue Glutathione Level in Tumor-Bearing Mice

 

S. B. Prasad, G. Rosangkima and D. Khynriam

Cell and Tumor Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology

North-Eastern Hill University,

Shillong-793022; India

 

Abstract : Cisplatin treatment of Dalton’s lymphoma-bearing mice for five days induced toxicological effects in kidney, testes and blood. The development of tubular dilation, degeneration, necrosis of epithelial cells and lining membrane damage in kidney and vacuolated, deranged and broken seminiferous tubules in testes have been observed. In blood, cisplatin treatment caused a reduction in red blood cells, white blood cells, and hemoglobin. Cisplatin treatment of mice caused a significant decrease of glutathione levels in kidney, blood and Dalton’s lymphoma (DL) cells. The cisplatin-induced toxicity was further enhanced in all the tissues when buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, was used in combination with cisplatin. The catalase enzyme activity was very sharply reduced (60-70 %) in tissue as well as DL cells. The observed decrease of GSH level accompanied with the reduced catalase activity after cisplatin treatment may hamper antioxidant machinery in the cells and contribute to the development of tissue toxicity and DL cytotoxicity during cisplatin mediated chemotherapy in the hosts.

 

Keywords : Cisplatin, Toxicity, Glutathione, Catalase, Kidney

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 69-76

 

Hypolipidemic Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

 

Uttam Chand Gupta 1 and G. C. Jain 2


1.   Department of Zoology

      Seth G. B. Podar College, Nawalgarh, Dist. Jhunjhunu (Raj.) India

2.   Reproductive Physiology Laboratory

      Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302004

 

Abstract : The effect of Ginkgo biloba (fam. Ginkgoaceae) extract was assessed on serum lipid metabolism in cholesterol fed rats. Oral administration of cholesterol (500 mg/kg b.wt./day) suspended in coconut oil (0.5 ml/rat/day) for 90 days caused a significant (p<0.001) elevation in the level of total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipid in serum of rats. Addition of Ginkgo biloba extract 25 and 50 mg/ kg b.wt./day showed a significant reduction in concentration of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, phospholipid and triglycerides in serum. The HDL cholesterol / total cholesterol ratio was elevated in serum of Ginkgo biloba extract treated groups as compared to cholesterol alone fed control rats.

 

Keywords : Ginkgo biloba, Hypolipidemic effect, Cholesterol, Rats

 

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 Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 77-86

 

Organs of Distribution and Elimination of Indian Water Scorpion, Laccotrephes maculatus Fabr

 

Y.C. Gupta and Babita Khandelwal

Deptt. of Zoology,

B.S.A. College,

Mathura (U.P.) India

 

Abstract : The organs of distribution and elimination of Indian water scorpion, Laccotrephes maculatus Fabr. includes a median dorsal vessels, six pairs of alary muscles, dorsal diaphragm and six pairs of malpighian tubules.

 

Keywords : Laccotrephes maculatus Fabr. Alary Muscles, Diaphragm, Haemocytes, Leucocytes, Malpighian Tubules.

 

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 Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 87-95

 

Effectiveness of Aeration Units in Improving Water Quality of Lower Lake, Bhopal, India

 

Neelam Verma 1, D. D. Mishra 1 and Savita Dixit 2


1.   Chemistry Department, Government Geetanjali Girls P.G. College,

      Bhopal-462016, (M.P.), India
 

2.   Applied Chemistry Department,

      Maulana Azad, National Institute of Technology,

      Bhopal-462007, (M.P.), India

 

Abstract : To study the effectiveness of aeration units, we have selected the Lower Lake, which is situated in Bhopal, the capital city of Madhya Pradesh, India. The Lower lake (Lat 230 16’ 00” N and Long 770 25’ 00” E ) is an artificial lake. It is situated towards the east end of the Upper lake and is an integral part of the latter. It has a small catchment area 9.60 Sq.Km. and water spread of 1.29 Sq.Km. The extent of water pollution has been found to minimize by aeration units. The physico- chemical parameters like pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) nitrate, phosphate and bacteriological status have studied to ascertain the effectiveness of aeration unit. The floating fountain cum ozonizer installed at Neelam park station is more effective unit as it increases Dissolved Oxygen Concentration, reduces Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and the ozonizer installed at Khatlapura is also effective to increase Dissolved Oxygen concentration in the hypolimnion and control total coliform (MPN). Therefore, the present study indicates the aeration units especially dual systems are very effective in improving the water quality of a degraded water body.

 

Keywords : Aeration, Lake, Ozonizer, Physico-chemical characteristics.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 97-100

 

In Vitro Comparative Evaluation of Different Brands of Nifedipine Capsules

 

Deepak Sharma and Rakesh Gupta

Lal Bahadur Shastri College of Pharmacy,

Tilak Nagar, Jaipur, India

 

Abstract : Five leading brands of Nifedipine soft gelatin capsules A, B, C, D and E were subjected to in vitro comparative evaluation with respect to compliance with prescribed standards of Indian Pharmacopoeia. All the brands complied with respect to physical appearance and disintegration time. One of the brand failed to meet the requirements of uniformity of content and content of active ingredient (assay). The results of study revealed that manufacturers need to be highly research based and need strict adherence with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) and current good laboratory practices (cGLP) to maintain proper quality of medicine as pharmaceuticals are life saving drugs, quality is an imperative for growth and key tool to make a smooth entry into competitive world market.

 

Key words : Nifedipine, Indian Pharmacopoeia, Disintegration time, Uniformity of content, Assay, Quality.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 101-106

 

Towards a Global Environmental Ethics - A Review Discussion

 

Aruna Khare* and K.K. Khare **

*    Government Post Graduate College,

      Sehore (M.P.), India
 

**  Regional Institute of Education,

      Bhopal (M.P.), India

 

Abstract : Environmental ethics is “a reasoned account of how people should live their lives”, it indicates a precious code in  the  individuals  and  societies.  Environmental  ethics ought to be developed in each person, to command him/her as a force from within to make decisions and take action on the different aspects of the environment, which are not harmful to the local, national and international community. We cannot conserve / preserve our environment by making laws by force.  According to Khgshoo.  (1987)  “this universe is the creation of the supreme powers and is universe is the creation of the supreme powers and is meant for the benefit of all.” Individual species must therefore,  learn  to  enjoy  its  benefits  by  regarding themselves as part of the system in close relationship with other  species.  Review  of literature  supports  that  the environmental ethics is governed by the environmental theology which is related to views expressing God’s relationship to the environment and the divine expectations of human behaviour with regard to the environment.

 

Keywords : Environmental ethics. Environmental theology, Environmental values, Environmentalism Deoview. Worldsviews.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 107-116

 

Clenbuterol Attenuates Work Stress Induced Degeneration in Rat Skeletal Muscle and Its Inhibition by Butoxamine

 

Asha Garg and Sushma Sharma

Department of Biosciences,

Himachal Pradesh University,

Shimla-171005; India

 

Abstract : Clenbuterol is known to have therapeutic potential in ameliorating muscle atrophy because of its presumed anabolic effects. However, little is known about its effects on lipids under normal and stress conditions. Male rats of Wistar strain were shedied under work stress and clenbuterol treatment to understand the lipid status. Animals were subjected to work over load stress and then treated with clenbuterol (2 mg/kg/day) to find out its potential in recovery from stress. b2 -antagonist butoxamine (2 mg/kg/day) was also given to another clenbuterol treated group to study its b blocking efficacy. Work stress decreased lipid levels in skeletal muscles, which is reflected by lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the skeletal muscles whereas an increase in the two lipid fractions has been observed with clenbuterol which also induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy in normal animals and attenuated degenerative changes in skeletal muscles under work stress. Increased lipids in the heart by clenbuterol infer towards its deleterious effects on heart. Antagonist butoxamine had stimulatory effects similar to clenbuterol initially where an increase in the lipid levels was observed, which however were reduced during successive stages indicating its inhibitory effect later on. Butoxamine also prevented muscle hypertrophy which was brought about by clenbuterol, without affecting degenerative changes induced by work stress.

 

Keywords : Clenbuterol, Butoxamine, b-Adrenoceptors, Lipids, Skeletal muscles

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 117-120

 

Scanning Electron Microscopy of Surface Deposition of Human Embroyonic Lenses in Abnormal Condition

 

G. Das 1, J.K. Kundu 2, C.R. Maity 3, S.K. Ghosal 4 and P. Ghosh 4

 

      1.   Department of Zoology, Ananda Mohan College, Kolkata-700009, India

      2.   Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, India

      3.   Director of Medical Education, Government of West Bengal,

            Kolkata-700001, India

      4.   Burdwan University, Burdwan-71304, West Bengal, India

 

Abstract : Scanning electron microscopy was performed with the lenses of four aborted embroys collected in different pathological conditions of the pregnant mothers. The adherence of debris, corneal endothelial cells and discharge materials to the lens capsule were the major complications. These findings advise the pregnant mother not to use the drugs, alcohol and cigarette during pregnancy which affect babies in their later stage of life and, therefore, required to use intraocular devices including intraocular lens (IOL) to improve visual acuity.

 

Keywords: Scanning electron microscopy, Corneal endothelial cells, Lens.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 121-126

 

Evaluation of Radioprotective Effects of Spirulina in Swiss Albino Mice

 

Shekhar Verma, Ravindra Samarth and Meenakshi Panwar

Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory,

Department of Zoology,

University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004 (India)

 

Abstract : The present study reports the effect of Spirulina on radiation induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice. Animals of Group-I (Control, radiation alone) were exposed to gamma radiation (8 Gy), while, animals of Group-II (Experimental, Spirulina + Radiation), received Spirulina (800 mg/kg body weight) for seven consecutive days and were exposed to gamma radiation (as in Group-I). Hematological parameters were assessed at different intervals of post-irradiation from day 1 to 14. The average hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count and total leucocyte count in experimental group were significantly elevated as compared to the control group of animals. Treatment with Spirulina also caused a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in the liver, suggesting its role in protection against radiation induced membrane and cellular damage. Results suggest that Spirulina modulate the radiation induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice.

 

Keywords : Radioprotection, Spirulina, Swiss albino mice, Hematological parameters.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 127-132

 

Study of C Dynamics between Mud and Water by the Influence of Physical Raking and Biological Condition Using Radioactive 14C

 

J. N. Bhakta, J. K. Biswas and B. B. Jana

Aquaculture and Applied Limnology Research Unit,

Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani,

Kalyani-741 235, West Bengal, India

 

Abstract : Experiment was performed in the laboratory using radioactive 14C for ascertaining the dynamics and quantifying the exchangeable amount of carbon between sediment and water phase by the influence of physical and biological condition. Collected sediment (100 g) was dispensed in a glass beaker and filled with 250 ml tap water and after one hour each beaker treated with radioactive 14C. Four treatments : physical raking once (RO), repeated raking (RR), bacteria (Bacillus, 167 102 ml-1) inoculum (BI) and bacteria inoculum (Bacillus, 167 102 ml-1) plus repeated raking (BI + RR) were used in the study. Water samples were collected and tested for specific activity of radioactive 14C and examined for heterotrophic bacterial (HB) population. The 14C value of BI+RR treatment was 5, 12, 28 and 37% higher than BI, RR, RO and control, respectively. In BI+RR, the concentration of 14C of water also showed minimal decrease (31%) than other treatments. Synergistic effect of bacteria inoculum plus repeated raking (BI + RR) released maximum amount of carbon than that of the rest three treatments.

Critical appraisal of data clearly revealed five  dynamic  states  of  14C  between  water  and  sediment : 14C moves to sediment causing rapid fall of 14C level in water from day 0 to 20 - rapid absorption period (RAP) and slow decrease from day >20 to 28 - slow absorption period (SAP), 14C move to water from day >28 to 55 resulting in the slow increase of 14C level in water - desorption period (DP), again the 14C level of water decreased from day >55 to 90 - absorption period (AP) and from day >90 to 124 the 14C concentration became equilibrium in the water and sediment phase possibly due to no movement of 14C - steady period (SP).

 

Keywords : Radioactive 14C, raking, bacteria inoculum, absorption and desorption, mud-water exchange 

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 133-141

 

Histopathogical Changes due to Red 6BX dye in Liver, Intestine and Gill of a Fresh Water fish Saccobranchus fossilis (Bleeker)

 

Anil Choudhary and Mukta Bharti

Department of Zoology,

Jai Narain Vyas University,

Jodhpur – 342010 (Rajasthan), India

 

Abstract : A fresh water cat fish Saccobranchus fossils was exposed to various concentrations of Red 6BX dye at different time intervals. Liver, intestine and gill were taken for histopathogical studies. After the treatment of dye Red 6BX, liver showed disturbed hepatic architecture and deshaping of cells with migration of their nuclei towards the periphery. Intestine showed breakage in mucosal folds and disorganization of muscularis mucosa and serosa and degeneration of villi. Gill showed degeration in the respiratory epithelial cells, increase in racker length. Gill damages were observed in all four groups.

 

Keywords : Cat fish, Dye, Histopathology, effluent, toxicity.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 143-149

 

CDM Opportunities in Renewable Energy Projects With Particular Reference to Wind Power

 

Sanjeev Shrivastava, V. K. Sethi and Narendra Kumar

School of Energy & Environment Management,

RGPV, Bhopal, India.

 

Abstract : India has been actively participating in the CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) regime and has already approved project for further development. Due to tightening environmental regulations and our commitment to contain CO2 emission to combat global warming the present century would possibly witness CO2 based economy, a shift from oil-based economy. The reduction in green house gas (GHG)emission has become a salelable commodity in the form of carbon credits. The developed countries can earn carbon credits from the reduction in GHG level in developing country through their transfer of environmentally benign technologies. It is indeed a win- win situation for either.  The CDM is a novel mechanism, one that can potentially redirect the flow of investments to a variety of different projects, from major transportation initiatives to energy conservation measures to small-scale Solar/Wind based systems. Solar wind hybrid system have relatively large potential for attracting carbon credits due to the fact that solar and wind are complementary in nature and entire power generation is eligible for certified reduction of CO2 as compared to a coal based plant burning coal.

 

Keyword : Solar energy, Wind energy, Solar-Wind hybrid systems, CDM.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 151-158

 

Physico-chemical Status of Upper Lake (Bhopal, India) Water Quality with Special Reference to Phosphate and Nitrate Concentration and Their Impact on Lake Ecosystem

 

Sadhana Tamot and Pratibha Sharma

Department of Zoology,

Sadhu Vaswani College,

Bairagarh, M.P., India

 

Abstract : The physico-chemical status of Upper Lake (Bhopal, India) with special reference to phosphate and nitrate has been investigated during the year 2003-2004. The phosphate and nitrate are two important nutrients in the lake loading through point and non-point pollution sources such as washing, bathing, agricultural activities in fringe area, joining of domestic raw sewage, cultivation of trapa and huge growth of aquatic macrophytes. These nutrients support the fast growth of the aquatic plants (mainly Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrilla, Ceratophyllum etc.) as a result these plants lead to gradual shrinking of wetland area along with other complications like low light penetration, reduces oxygen concentration, clogging of water channels, lowers entertainment value of lake and some time the level of oxygen depletes so that it can lead to fish mortality also.

 

Keywords : Nutrients, lake limnology

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 159-163

 

Biocatalytic Reduction of Picolinaldehyde using Free and Immobilized Baker's Yeast

 

Anil Kumar Nainawat, Geeta Wadhvani, P.S. Verma and I.K. Sharma

Department of Chemistry,

University of Rajasthan,

Jaipur (INDIA)

 

Abstract : The biocatalytic reduction of picolinaldehyde (pyridine 2-carbaldehyde) was carried out using the microbial catalyst Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as well as its immobilized form in aqueous medium. The reduction product was isolated and purified by chromatographic techniques including HPLC and characterized on the basis of its spectral analysis.

 

Keywords : Biocatalytic reduction, Baker’s Yeast (BY), immobilized Baker’s Yeast (ImBY), NADH picolinaldehyde

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 165-170

 

Distribution of Zinc in the Gills of Experimentally Exposed Cat Fish : Histological and Histochemical Study

 

Deepali Jat and Suresh Kothari

School of Studies in Zoology

Vikram University,

Ujjain 456010 (India)

 

Abstract :  Freshwater  catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) were experimentally exposed to 30 mg/l and 150 mg/l ZnSO4 for 30 days to find out histochemical distribution of Zn, acid mucopolysaccharides  (AMP), PAS positive substances (PAS) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) along with histological damage in gill tissues. Tips of gill filaments, central blood spaces and gill epithelium were main sites of Zn accumulation and its concentration increased with the increase of Zn in ambient water. Results suggest affinity of fish gills for Zn accumulation which resulted in structural damage and changes in the activity of ALP, AMP and carbohydrates. There exists a correlation between the sites of metal accumulation and sites of structural damage in the gills. Lifting of gill epithelium, reduction in lamellar height and occlusion of centrally located blood spaces were among the major histological alterations, which were intensified with the increased amount of toxicant.

 

Key words : Zn, Alkaline phosphatase, Acid mucopolysaccharides, Carbohydrates.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 171-180

 

Toxicological Effects of Cadmium Chloride on Acetyl Cholinesterase Activity of a Fresh Water Fish, Oreochromis massambicus, Peters

 

Lingaraj Patro

Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology,

Department of Zoology, Aska Science College,

Aska, Ganjam, 761111,

Orissa, India.

 

Abstract : The present study deals with the impact of cadmium chloride on a fresh water fish Oreochromis mossambicus, Peters and its ecological implications. Fishes when exposed to cadmium chloride showed lethargy, inappetence and ataxia. When exposed fishes where compared and contrasted with normal fishes erratic movements, loss of equilibrium, gradual onset of inactivity were noticed in exposed fishes. Significant changes, in acetyl cholinesterase activity in brain, liver and muscle of the exposed fish were conspicuous. The most affected became the brain and the liver. The toxicant cadmium chloride brought about noticeable variations between the control fish tissues and exposed fish tissues. When recovery studies were conducted partial insignificant recovery was witnessed. This enzyme is responsible for synaptic transmission and nerve impulse generation. Cadmium chloride played a vital role in causing disturbances in nerve impulse generation and synaptic transmission in tissues.

 

Keywords : Fish, AChE activity, Cadmium chloride, Oreochromis massambicus.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Voacl. 20, No. 1, 2006, 181-188

 

Contraceptive  Efficacy  of  Strychnos  potatorum  Seed  Extract  in  Male Albino Rats

 

R.S. Gupta 1,  M. Kanwar 1,  H. Rehwani 1, S.K. Verma 2 and  M.P. Dobhal 2


1.   Reproductive Physiology Section

      Department of Zoology,

2.   Department of Chemistry

      University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004,India

 

Abstract : Present study was undertaken to evaluate the contraceptive efficacy of 70% methanolic extract of Strychnos potatorum seeds. The aqueous solution of extract (100 mg/rat/day) was administered orally to male rats of proven fertility for 60 days. Sperm motility, sperm density, serum testosterone level, biochemical analysis and testicular cell population dynamics were carried out to assess the contraceptive effect of S. potatorum. The treatment did not bring any body weight loss, whereas, the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased significantly (P<0.01). Reduced sperm count and motility resulted in suppression of fertility by 91.81%. Significant reduction was noticed in protein and sialic acid contents in reproductive organs. Number of spermatogonia and Sertoli cells were decreased. The population of preleptotene, pachytene and secondary spermatocytes were decreased by 55.72%, 63.40% and 49.81%, respectively. The seminiferous tubular diameter and Leydig cell nuclear area were reduced significantly (P<0.01) as compared to the controls. Strychnos potatorum seed possesses suppressive effects on male fertility and could be useful in development of male contraceptive agent. However, further studies are needed.

 

Keywords : Leydig cell, Sialic acid, Strychnos potatorum, Sperm motility, Testes, Testosterone.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 189-194

 

Histological Effect of Dichlorvos on the Cardiac Stomach of Channa gachua

 

Sarla Kasotiya and O. P. Jain

Department of Zoology and Aquaculture

Govt. P. G. College,

Sehore (M.P.) India

 

Abstract : The wall of stomach of Channa gachua is differentiated into gastric epithelium, tunica propria, submucosa, muscularis and serosa. In the stomach of control fishes mucous layer is thrown into many thin prominent finger like sharp folds. Gastric cells oxyntic cells and peptic cells are found in columnar epithelium. The submucosa is provided with connective tissue and tunica propria. The The muscularis is differentiated into an outer thin longitudinal muscle and an inner thick circular muscle layer. Serosa is a thin outer most layer.

 

3 ppm dichlorvos treatment for 10 days does not show remarkable change in the layers of stomach except thickening in the mucosa. Tunica propria was formed of loosely arranged cell. After 20 days intoxication it showed the reduction in the thickness of submucosa and the tunica propria. Muscularis was well developed. With 5 ppm dichlorovos for 10 and 20 days no further change was observed in the mucosa but epithelial layer was found to be reduced.In the fishes exposed to 10 ppm dichlorvos for 10 days disintegration in the tissues was observed.

 

Key words : Dichlorvos, Cardiac Stomach, Toxicity, Channa gachua

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 195-200

 

Evaluation of Sofoof-e-Teen in Chronic Amoebiasis

 

S. Fazlur Rahman Kazmi 1 M.M.H. Siddiqui 2  M.Y. Siddiqui 2 and Asif Iqbal Siddiqui 1 


1.     Dr.M.I.J.T.Unani Medical College &

        H.A.R.K. Hospital, Mumbai, India


2.     A.K.Tibbiya College,

        Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India

 

Abstract : Chronic Amoebiasis has progressively increasing now-a-days. According to a WHO report, in 1997, Entamoeba Histolytica infected about 45 million people and 70,000 deaths were occurred due to amoebiasis worldwide. In India its prevalence rate was 15% and about 15% of Indian population were carried out the infection of Entamoeba histolytica. In unani system of medicine, the disease was well known since ancient time and was described in full detail by unani physician like Ibn-e-Sina, Razi, Maseehi and Hakeem Azam Khan. Sofoof-e-Teen is one of these medicine were used to treat this condition and was treated successfully. An effort was done to evaluate the efficacy of Sofoof-e-Teen in chronic amoebiasis on 50 patients attending OPD/IPD of Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College Hospital, Aligarh. The result was found satisfactory at the end of study

 

Keywords : Amoebiasis, Sofoof-e-Teen, Zaheer.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 201-208

 

Postcoital Antifertility Effect of Petroleum Ether Extract of Curcuma longa Rhizome in Female Rats

 

R. Yadav and G. C. Jain

Reproductive Physiology Laboratory,

Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan,

Jaipur 302004 (India).

 

Abstract : Curcumin, a natural polyphenol alkaloid yellow - orange dye derived from the rhizome is known to exhibit a variety of pharmacological effects. Petroleum ether extract of the rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn. was examined for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption effects in female rats. Oral administration of the extract to mated female rats on day 1-5 of pregnancy at the doses 100, 200, 500 mg/kg b.wt/day caused a decline in the fertility index, numbers of uterine implants and live fetuses in a dose dependent manner. Complete inhibition of fetal implantation was observed in rats treated with 500 mg/kg b.wt. dose of the extract. The results of bioassay test carried out in bilaterally ovariectomised immature female rats did not exhibit any estrogenic or antestrogenic activity.

 

Keywords : Curcuma longa, Anti-implantation, Pregnancy, Rat.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 209-210

 

Studies on Anti-microbial Traits of Essential Oils of Digera arvens Fresh and Shade Dried Leaves and Roots from Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India

 

K. Sarada* and C.G. Prakasa Rao **
 

*      Shri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning  (Deemed University)

        Anantapur Campus, Anantapur - 515 001, India
 

**   Sri Krishna Devaraya University, Anantapur - 515 001, Andhrra Pradesh, India

 

Abstract : The leaves and roots of Digera arvens (Amaranthaceae) a common weed abundantly available in Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, is reportedly used in the preparation of herbal drugs. The essential oil obtained from fresh and shade dried leaves and roots have also been reported to be anti-microbial and antihelmintie. In the present study it is found that fresh leaves and roots yielded more oil than the shade dried leaves and roots.

The major components were found to be m-phellandrene (52.04%); longifolene (15.12%) and a-cedrene (14.67%) from stems; and longifolene (125.12%), a-cedrene (16.67%) and a-phellandrene (58.21%) from roots, respectively. Further studies on anti-microbial properties of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (both fresh and shade dried leaves and roots) showed more anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Bacilleus subtilis; Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermoacidephilus. The percentages of major constituents were studied by GC analysis.

 

Key words : Anti-microbial; Essential oil; Digera arvens.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 211-214

 

Biological CO2 Fixation in Coal Combustion By-product (ash) through Microgreen Algae Biosystem and Evaluate Response to Regulation CO2 recycled to Applied Biotechnology

 

V.K. Sethi, Narendra Kumar* and Sanjiv Shrivastav

School of Bio-Technology

School of Energy and Environment

Management RGPV,  Bhopal, M.P., India

 

Abstract : The biological CO2 fixation with microgreen algae Chlorella species has been optimized for high CO2 feeding and photosynthesis of organic matter. Microalgae cultivate in large open ponds and it may be enriched with wastewater with high BOD. Algae cultivation can thereon contribute substantially to a reduction of CO2 emission. Microalgae are microscopic, single–celled plants growing in aqueous environment. The micro-algae are dried with high temperature and CO2 containing waste gas as a fuel. The process of photosynthesis into energy biomass conversion reaction occur as nonphotosynthesis microorganism thereby converting it into a useful substances (biomass) as hydrocarbon, protein, vitamin, and mineral.

 

Keyword : GHGs, Green algae, Chlorella vulgaris, CO2 fixation.

 

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Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, 215-216

 

Conservation and Ecotourism : Study of Madhav National Park, Shivpuri, M.P., India

 

Rajiv Saxena    

Pt. K.L. Dubey National Parliamentary Academy,

Old Vidhan Sabha Campus,

Bhopal - 462003 (M.P.) India

 

Abstract : Present paper defines the general principles of ecotourism, views of conservationists and the need of participation oi local people which lead to the identificationand creation of an ideal ecological site for tourism. Madhav National Park (77 15' - 78 30' E and 24 50'- 25 44’N) is situated just 5 km from Shivpuri town, and is one of a few national parks which remain open throughout the year for visitors. Besides larger mammals, 234 species of birds, 15 species of reptiles and 15 species of butterflies have been recorded here. Two lakes, Sakhya Sagar (2 sq. km) and Madhav Lake (0.49 sq.km.) harbour a large number of winter migratory birds. A tiger safari is also there inside the national park. Proximity to the city and two national highways (No. 3 : Agra-Bombay and No. 25 : Shivpuri-Bhognipur) passing through the park have made it easily accessible, resulting in various threats to its ecology. The paper evaluates the present state of conservation and tourism in Madhav National Park and suggests measures for balanced ecotourism.

 

Keywords : Ecotourism, Conservation, Local people, Madhav National Park, Management.



 

   
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